BAKING AND PASTRY 1 FINAL 2013

100 terms by doreyca_fleming 

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butter is the preferred fat when making tarts out of pate brisee because

taste is highly important

some baked meringues are reffered to as sponges because they contain

cake flour

When creaming fat and sugar for a cake batter the mixer should be set at

medium speed

the best temperature for a cake batter emulsion is?

70 degrees

the process of creaming fat and sugar together is to

incorporate air

chemical leaveners in a cake function as

tenderizer

This ingredient functions as a tenderizer, a toughner, and a moistener

eggs

a cake is done if the center of the cake

springs back when touched, or is dry when a toothpick is inserted and removed

in cookie terms, softness is the opposite of

crispiness

Wanda asked the baker why he double panned his last batch of cookies, his answer was

to prevent the bottoms from buring

Too low an oven temperature can cause the cookies to

spread

This fat has the right consistancy to make a flaky pie crust, and make an easily workable dough

regular hydrogenated shortening

This ingredient help a pie crust brown more quickly

milk

When making baked fruit pies the bottom dough should be

mealy

Pie crust should be rolled out to a uniform thickness of

1/8th

Solid packed canned fruits contain

no water

The best flour to use in flaky pie crust is

Pastry Flour

A soggy bottom crust might be caused by

underbaked bottom crust, or soaking up moisture from filling

Prevent the outside edge of pudding/custard from overbaking before the inside is set by baking

in a water bath

The amount of_________ in a custard determines its firmness

starch

The eggs in custard become completely cooked or coagulated by _______ degrees F

185 degrees

Why is the milk used in baked puddings should be scalded

reduces cooking time and helps product cook more evenly

_________ can be used for a base for a Souffle

pastry creams or sweetened white sauces...

A standard Souffle contains

base, flavoring ingredient, egg whites

Pared apples are dipped in a solution of _______ to prevent them from turning brown

lemon juice...

How many ounces are in 5 pounds of flour

80...

Protecting the product from air, adding moisture retainers to the formula, and freezing are recommended ways to

slow staling

When an emolusion contains more water than the fat can hold, the mixture

breaks or curdles

Shortenings are primarily used in baking to

take the place of the missing fat...

What common bakeshop ingredient strengthens gluten structure and inhibits yeast growth

salt...

To create a dough that is at the proper temperature for fermentations, it is easiest to control the temperature of the

water...

Properly developed yeast dough feels

smooth and elastic...

Yeast continues to grow until the dough

reaches 140 degrees...

what are the parts of the wheat kernel

bran, germ, and endosperm...

How do bakers create a loaf of bread with square slices

by placing in a pan with a lid (pullman)...

In the baker's percentage method, flour is always what percent

100%...

When starches absorb moisture, expand and become firm, they are said to

gelatinize...

At which stage in the baking process does water evaporate

throughout the entire baking process...

How many Fluid ounces are in One U.S. gallon

128...

How many ounces are 2.5 pounds

40...

Which can be measured in a volume container

water milk and eggs...

What are the functions of fat in a baking process

add moistness and richness, increase keeping quality, add flavor, assist in leavening when used as a creaming agent...

What is step 12 in the "12 steps in yeast dough production"

storing...

Bakers prefer to use butter because it

adds flavor and influences texture because it melts in the mouth...

Frozen eggs should be defrosted

placed unopened in the refrigerator and held for 2 days or placed in a defrosting tank containing running water at 50-60 degrees...

To store yeast breads for a long period of time, they should be wrapped and

frozen...

This yeast dough production step is the process of molding bread into desired shapes

makeup or panning ...

Not listed in the text as yeast dough mixing method

only 3 listed in text are straight dough, modified straight dough, and sponge...

Invert sugar has which of the following properties

resists crystallization, and holds moisture well...

function of sugar in baked goods

add sweetness and flavor, give crust color, create tenderness and fineness of texture, increase keeping quality, act as creaming agent, provide food for yeast...

function of whole eggs in baked goods

structure, leavening, emulsifying of fats, shortening action, moisture, flavor, nutritional value, color...

Salt is used in bread-making because it

strengthens gluten and inhibits yeast growth...

Meringue made by beating hot sugar syrup into egg whites is called

italian meringue...

Which type of sugar is used to make syrups

granulated sugar...

Meringue made by beating sugar into unheated egg whites is called

common or french meringue...

Why are quick breads generally mixed only slightly

for tenderness and only slight gluetin development...

Which term describes the elongated holes sometimes found in quick bread muffins

tunneling...

For which mixing method is the fat cut into the dry ingredients and the dough kneaded before makeup

biscuit method...

Chocolate cream is also known as

ganache...

What is the key ingredient of meringues

egg whites...

The most accurate way to determine the doneness of a syrup is to

test the temperature with a candy thermometer...

Quick breads such as muffins and loaves use this to rise

chemical leaveners and steam...

The flavoring used most frequently in the bakeshop

vanilla

biscuit method

a mixing method used to make biscuits, scones, and flaky doughs; it involves cutting cold fat into the flour and other dry ingredients before any liquid is added

muffin method

mixing method in which the mixing dry ingredients are combined with the mixed liguid fat and other ingredients.

creaming method

A mixing method that begins with the blending of softened fat and sugar. Resulting in a rich tender, cakelike product.

sponge

A batter or dough of yeast, flour, and water that is allowed to ferment and is then mixed with more flour and other ingredients to make a bread dough.

Crumb

cell size of interior of a baked food product.

Bread flour

Strong hard wheat flour, such as patent flour, used for breads.

Pastry flour

A weak flour used for pastries and cookies.

Gluten

An elastic substance, formed from proteins present in wheat flours, that gives structure and strength to baked goods.

1 cup = _____ fl oz

= 8 fl oz

1 pint = _____ fl oz

= 16 fl oz

1 quart = _______ fl oz = ______ pts

= 32 fl oz = 2 pt.

1/2 gallon = _______ fl oz

= 64 fl oz

1 gal = ______ fl oz = _______ qts

= 128 fl oz = 4 qts

1 T= ______ t

= 3 t

2 T = _____ oz

= 1 oz

1 lb = _____ oz

= 16 oz

1 g = _____ mg

1000 mg

1 kg = ______ g

1000 g

Lean Dough

A dough that is low in fat and sugar. Contains less than 10% shortening and sugar.

Rich dough

A dough high in fat, sugar, and/or eggs. Contains more than 10-30% shortening and sugar.

Straight Dough Method

A mixing method for yeast goods in which all ingredients are mixed together at once. (dump and go!)

Retarding

Slowing the fermentation or proof of yeast doughs by refrigeration.

Wash

Yeast products are brushed with a liquid using; water, starch paste, egg wash or commericial aerosol sprays.

Benching

Dough is placed on the workbench and covered to let the gluten rest.

Fermentation

Process by which yeast acts on the sugars and starches of the dough to produce carbon dioxide gas (CO2) and alcohol.

Windowpane test

Demonstrates complete and proper gluten development. To apply the test, take a small amount, form a ball and stretch it to a thin translucent membrane.

12 Basic Yeast Dough Production

1. Scaling ingredients
2. Mixing
3. Bulk fermentation
4. Punch down
5. Scaling
6. Rounding
7. Benching
8. Make up and panning
9. Proofing
10. Baking
11. Cooling
12. Storing

Pour Batter

Batters liquid enough to pour.

Bakers % Formula when you don't know the % of the ingredient.

total weight of ingredient/ total weight of flour x 100 = % of the ingredient.

Killing of Yeast

Doughs contain other organisms, including bacteria and molds. Most of these, including yeast, die when the interior temperature of the item reaches about 140 degrees F (60C). When it dies, fermentation stops and no more carbon dioxide gas is released.

Maillard Reaction
(may-yahrd)

The caramelization in baked goods that occurs between 212 & 350 F (100-175C), as a result of a reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids or protiens. It causes the sugar-protein bonds to brown at a lower temperature and creates different shades of color ranging from yellow-gold to rich brown. Named after its discoverer, the chemist Dr. Louis-Camille Maillard.

Make up and Panning

When making yeast doughs this is where the dough is shaped into loaves or rolls then placed in pans or on baking sheets.

Proofing

When making yeast doughs this is a continuation process of yeast fermentation that increases the volume of the shaped dough.

Rounding

When making yeast doughs, after scaling the pieces of dough are shaped into smooth, round balls. Simplifies the later shaping of the dough and also helps retain gases produced by the yeast.

Yeast Dough Mixing

When making yeast doughs, methods combining the various stages that happen in a mixing bowl such as: pick-up stage, clean-up stage to create a dough where the gluten becomes smooth and elastic.

Tunneling

A result created by overmixing quickbreads where it produces tough interior and irregular shapes and large, elogated holes inside quickbreads.

Drop Batter

Batters thick enough to be dropped from a a spoon or scoop in lumps.

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