Ch. 13: Pies and Pastries

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After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Prepare flaky pie dough and mealy pie dough. 2. Prepare crumb crust and short or cookie crust. 4. Assemple and bake pies. Prepare the following pie fillings: fruit fillings using the cooked juice method, the cooked fruit method, and the old-fashion method; custard or soft fillings; cream pie fillings; and chiffon fillings. 5. Prepare puff pastry dough and puff dough products. 6. Prepare eclair paste and eclaire paste products. 7. Prepare sta…

The fat used most frequently in volume production of pie doughs is ___________.
a. regular shortening.
b. emulsified shortening.
c. margarine.
d. none of the above.

a. regular shortening.

Salt is incorporated into pie dough by:
a. sifting it with the flour
b. dissolving it in the water.
c. blending it with the fat.
d. none of the above.

b. dissolving it in the water.

In the production of flaky pie dough________.
a. the fat is blended with the flour until smooth.
b. the fat is cut into the flour until the particles are about the size of peas.
c. the fat is cut into the flour until the mixture resembles cornmeal.
d. the fat is rolled into the dough, which is then given three 3-folds.

b. the fat is cut into the flour until the particles are about the size of peas.

The main ingredients in graham cracker crumb crust are:
a. graham cracker crumbs, pastry flour, butter.
b. graham cracker crumbs, sugar, ice water.
c. graham cracker crumbs, sugar, melted butter.
d. none of the above.

c. graham cracker crumbs, sugar, melted butter.

The most appropriate type of pie dough or crust to use for pumpkin pie is
a. flaky pie dough, unbaked.
b. mealy pie dough, unbaked.
c. mealy pie dough, prebaked.
d. short dough.

b. mealy pie dough, unbaked.

The best starch to use for thickening cream pie fillings is
a. pastry flour
b. waxy maize.
c. modified starch.
d. cornstarch.

d. cornstarch.

The ideal starch to use for thickening most fruit pie fillings is:
a. pastry flour.
b. tapioca.
c. waxy maize
d. cornstarch.

c. waxy maize

The primary leavening agent in puff pastry is:
a. yeast
b. baking powder.
c. baking soda.
d. steam.

d. steam.

To create over 1000 layers, puff pastry is given ________.
a. three 3-folds.
b. three 4-folds.
c. four 4-folds.
d. six 4-folds.

c. four 4-folds.

The best flour to use for making éclair paste is ________.
a. bread flour.
b. pastry flour.
c. cake flour.
d. three parts cake flour plus one part cornstarch.

a. bread flour.

The success of pie pastry depends upon how the __________.
a. gluten is developed
b. shortening and flour are mixed
c. salt tenderizes and conditions the gluten
d. both a and b

d. both a (gluten is developed) and b (shortening and flour are mixed)

__________ flour is the best choice for pie doughs.
a. Cake
b. Bread
c. Pastry
d. Strong

c. Pastry

When Chef Mouille talked about the liquid component of pie doughs, you were least likely to hear her say __________.
a. gluten gives structure and flakiness to pie crust.
b. water is necessary to develop some gluten in a pie crust.
c. milk makes a pie crust that is crisper than one made with water.
d. milk makes a pie crust that browns more quickly than one made with water.

c. milk makes a pie crust that is crisper than one made with water.

Pie dough should be keep cool during mixing and make-up because __________.
a. if it is too warm, gluten will develop too slowly.
b. shortening has its best consistency when it is neither too warm nor too cold.
c. a butter-based dough will turn rancid very quickly if its temperature is too high.
d. the salt in the dough will keep the shortening and the flour from mixing properly at high or low temperatures.

b. shortening has its best consistency when it is neither too warm nor too cold.

The difference between flaky and mealy pie dough is __________.
a. the way in which the fat is blended with the flour.
b. that flaky dough resists sogginess better than mealy dough.
c. that flaky pie dough is used for bottom crusts and mealy dough is used for top crusts.
d. all of the above

a. the way in which the fat is blended with the flour.

A flaky pie dough __________ than a mealy pie dough.
a. is shorter
b. uses less water
c. is less likely to be used in a baked custard-type pie
d. none of the above

c. is less likely to be used in a baked custard-type pie

When making a mealy pie dough, it is important to work the fat into the flour until the mixture looks like ___________.
a. peas.
b. hazelnuts.
c. coarse cornmeal.
d. either a or b

c. coarse cornmeal.

If Leontine reworked the trimmings from her three pie crusts to make a fourth pie, she would immediately notice that the crust of her fourth pie was __________ than the crusts of her other three.
a. flakier
b. tougher
c. mealier
d. soggier

b. tougher

If you are mixing a pie dough in a machine, you should use the __________.
a. paddle.
b. pastry knife.
c. dough hook.
d. either a or b

d. either a (paddle) or b (pastry knife)

Oliver answered "true" to all of the following true-false questions. Which one did he answer correctly?
a. Crumb crusts are used only for baked pies.
b. Crumb crusts are more difficult to make than pastry crusts.
c. Baking a crumb crust makes it firmer, less crumbly, and improves it flavor.
d. One advantage of crumb crusts is that any flavor of crumb crust compliments the flavor of any filling.

c. Baking a crumb crust makes it firmer, less crumbly, and improves it flavor.

A short dough crust would be most likely used to produce a __________.
a. chiffon pie.
b. custard pie.
c. small fruit tart.
d. baked fruit pie.

c. small fruit tart.

A soft pie __________.
a. is not baked.
b. usually has two crusts.
c. begins with a baked crust.
d. has a filling that begins as a liquid.

d. has a filling that begins as a liquid.

Cream pies and chiffon pies are good examples of __________ pies.
a. soft
b. baked
c. unbaked
d. both a and c

c. unbaked

As Chef Rouler rolled his pie dough and lined his pie pans with it, you were likely to see him __________.
a. stretch it to fit the pan snugly.
b. begin from the edges and roll toward the center.
c. roll the dough out to a uniform 1/4 inch thickness.
d. roll it around the rolling pin to lift it without breaking.

d. roll it around the rolling pin to lift it without breaking.

A ___________ pie is usually baked at high heat (425 to 450°F / 220 to 230°C ) for the first ten minutes, and then at 325 to 350°F (165 to 175°C) until it is done.
a. fruit
b. pecan
c. pumpkin
d. both b and c

d. both b (pecan) and c (pumpkin)

If you want to avoid a soggy bottom on your pies, you should ___________.
a. avoid using dark metal pie tins.
b. use flaky dough for your bottom crusts.
c. add very hot fillings to your unbaked crusts.
d. use high bottom heat, at least at the beginning of baking.

d. use high bottom heat, at least at the beginning of baking.

If Chef Renverse is baking her pans of pie dough upside down, she is most likely trying to prevent ____________.
a. soggy bottoms,
b. crust blistering,
c. bottom scorching,
d. the dough from shrinking into the pans,

d. the dough from shrinking into the pans,

If Chef Geler plans to freeze his apple pies after he bakes them, then he is most likely to thicken them with __________.
a. flour.
b. corn starch.
c. waxy maize.
d. pregelatinized starch.

c. waxy maize.

Which set of words completes the following sentence correctly? Flour has _________ thickening power in pie fillings than other starches and makes the product __________.
a. less, lumpy
b. less, cloudy
c. more, lumpy
d. more, less susceptible to freezer damage

b. less, cloudy

Rose baked a pie with very tart rhubarb, and she used a larger than normal amount of sugar to balance out the acid of the rhubarb. Why was the filling in her finished pie too runny?
a. Sugar reduces the thickening power of starch.
b. Strong acids reduce the thickening power of starch.
c. Rhubarb is naturally more runny than other fruit when it is cooked.
d. both a and b

d. both a (Sugar reduces the thickening power of starch) and b (Strong acids reduce the thickening power of starch)

The advantage of frozen fruits for the production of pie fillings is that they __________.
a. are readily available.
b. have consistent quality.
c. can be rehydrated quickly.
d. both a and b

d. both a (are readily available) and b (have consistent quality)

If you make a raisin pie, you are most likely to use the __________ method.
a. rehydration
b. cooked fruit
c. cooked juice
d. old-fashioned

b. cooked fruit

If you make a berry pie, you are most likely to use the __________ method.
a. rehydration
b. cooked fruit
c. cooked juice
d. old-fashioned

c. cooked juice

The filling in custard, pumpkin, and pecan pies are thickened primarily with ___________.
a. eggs.
b. flour.
c. corn starch.
d. instant or pregelatinized starch.

a. eggs.

What is the greatest difficulty in cooking soft pies?
a. curdled filling
b. a hard or tough bottom crust
c. an overcooked crust and an undercooked filling
d. cooking the crust completely without overcooking the filling

d. cooking the crust completely without overcooking the filling

What ingredient makes slices of cream pie hold their shape after they have been cut?
a. flour
b. gluten
c. tapioca
d. cornstarch

d. cornstarch

Preparing a chiffon filling is very similar to preparing __________.
a. a Bavarian
b. a cold soufflé
c. some mousses
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Which of the following pastry → product combinations is correct?
a. puff pastry → éclairs
b. puff pastry → napoleons
c. éclair or choux paste → turnovers
d. all of the above

b. puff pastry → napoleons

Chef Soupcon suspected that his students had not read the material on puff pastry, so he gave them a pop quiz in which he asked them to write a factual sentence about this type of pastry. Which of her students had not read her/his assignment?
a. Cynthia: "Puff pastry is a rolled-in dough."
b. Peter: "Puff pastry consists of over 1,000 layers."
c. Michael: "Puff pastry's dramatic rise is due to its large amount of yeast."
d. Juanita: "Puff pastry contains no added leavening agent, but it can rise to eight times its original thickness when it is baked."

c. Michael: "Puff pastry's dramatic rise is due to its large amount of yeast."

The major disadvantage of using puff pastry shortening is that it __________.
a. is more expensive to use than butter.
b. becomes hard when it is refrigerated.
c. tends to congeal and coat the inside of the mouth.
d. softens and melts more easily than butter at room temperature.

c. tends to congeal and coat the inside of the mouth.

Blitz puff pastry is __________.
a. slower and more difficult to prepare than regular puff pastry.
b. named after its inventor, Adolph Blitz, a famous German pastry chef.
c. suitable for patty shells and other products where a high, light pastry is required.
d. is actually a very flaky pie dough that is rolled and folded like regular puff pastry.

d. is actually a very flaky pie dough that is rolled and folded like regular puff pastry.

What is Chef Tuyau making if she is rolling 1 ¼ inch strips of puff pastry onto a tube?
a. éclairs
b. napoleons
c. patty shells
d. cream horns

d. cream horns

Which of the following can be made with re-rolled puff pastry trimmings or blitz puff pastry?
a. éclairs
b. napoleons
c. patty shells
d. cream horns

b. napoleons

Which of the following would you hear during Chef Antoine's lecture on éclair paste?
a. If a product made from éclair paste is left in the oven too long, it may collapse.
b. This type of pastry is one of the most difficult to produce of all the dessert pastries.
c. Éclair paste and popover batter are similar because both of them are leavened by steam.
d. Proper baking temperatures are crucial. You must start at a relatively low temperature and then increase the temperature steadily until the product is done.

c. Éclair paste and popover batter are similar because both of them are leavened by steam.

Which of the following éclair paste products is deep-fried?
a. éclairs
b. crullers
c. profiteroles
d. cream puffs

b. crullers

Meringues __________.
a. are beaten egg whites sweetened with sugar.
b. are frequently used for pie toppings and cake icings.
c. can be used to give volume and lightness to buttercream icings and dessert soufflés.
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Which of the following is the worst enemy of properly foamed egg whites?
a. fat
b. sugar
c. water
d. none of the above

a. fat

A hard meringue contains more __________ than a soft meringue.
a. sugar
b. water
c. egg yolks
d. egg whites

a. sugar

The ingredients in both __________ and __________ meringues are hotter than room temperature when they are beaten.
a. Swiss, Italian
b. Swiss, common
c. Italian, common
d. none of the above

a. Swiss, Italian

Which of the following types of meringues is the most stable because its egg whites are actually cooked by the hot sugar syrup added to the them when they are beaten?
a. Swiss
b. Italian
c. common
d. Neapolitan

b. Italian

You might use a double boiler if you were preparing __________ meringue.
a. Swiss
b. Italian
c. common
d. Neapolitan

a. Swiss

Ice cream and sponge cake baked under a coating of meringue is known as __________.
a. Baked Alaska
b. meringue glacée
c. profiteroles gratin
d. Japonaise Meringue

a. Baked Alaska

A layer of meringue made with chopped nuts folded into the mixture is __________.
a. Baked Alaska
b. meringue glacée
c. profiteroles gratin
d. Japonaise Meringue

d. Japonaise Meringue

A dessert made with crisp meringues and ice cream is known as __________.
a. Baked Alaska
b. meringue glacée
c. profiteroles gratin
d. Japonaise Meringue

b. meringue glacée

Which of the following combinations is correct?
a. Baked Alaska → crisp meringues and ice cream
b. Japonaise Meringue → ice cream and sponge cake baked under a layer of meringue
c. meringue glacée → layers of meringue filled and iced with light buttercreams, chocolate mousse, whipped cream, or similar light fillings
d. none of the above

d. none of the above

Which of the following statements is false?
a. Cobblers have a bottom crust.
b. Crisps are topped with brown-sugar streusel.
c. Bettys contain alternate layers of cake crumbs and fruit.
d. none of the above

a. Cobblers have a bottom crust.

True or False
Water or pie dough should be lukewarm (90ºF or 32ºC) when added to the flour and shortening.

False

True or False
To make mealy pie dough, the dough should be blended very thoroughly after the water is added.

False

True or False
Approximate ratio of ingredients in flaky pie dough is 5 lb. Fat to 3 ½ lb flour to 1 ½ lb liquid. (Metric: 2.3 kg fat to 1.6 kg flour to 700 g liquid.)

False

True or False
Short dough, as used for small fruit tarts, is a type of cookie dough made with flour, butter, sugar, and eggs.

True

True or False
Fruit fillings should be cooled before filling pie shells.

True

True or False
When you are lining pie tins with dough, the dough should be stretched slightly to fill the tin and to avoid folds or wrinkles of dough.

True

True or False
When you are lining pie tins with dough, the dough should be stretched slightly to fill the tin and to avoid folds or wrinkles of dough.

False

True or False
To prepare baked pie shells for cream pies, you should pierce the dough with a fork all over the bottom before baking.

True

True or False
To avoid lumping, cornstarch must be mixed with a cold liquid or with sugar before being added to a hot liquid.

True

True or False
After it is removed from refrigeration, puff pastry dough should be allowed to warm up to room temperature before being rolled and cut.

False

True or False
Blitz puff pastry is made according to the same procedures as regular puff pastry dough but given fewer turns.

False

True or False
Éclairs and cream puffs must be cooled rapidly after removal from the oven.

False

True or False
Italian meringue is the most stable type of meringue because the egg whites are cooked during mixing.

True

True or False
Crisp, baked meringues may be made with 2 pounds of sugar per pound of egg whites.

True

True or False
When topping a pie with meringue, you must be careful not to let the meringue touch the rim of the crust.

False

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