Big Stick Diplomacy
TR's agressive and decisive foreign policy.
Taft's Taft's foreign policy which centered around promoting U.S. trade by supporting American enterprises abroad.
Roosevelt's addition to the Monroe Doctrine that stated that U.S. would intervene w/ military force when necessary.
The U.S. "stole" this canal from Columbia by backing a Panamanian revolt. Columbia was mad. We paid them $25 million in 1921 to make up for it.
Venezuela, Dominican Republic
We gave these Latin American countries money to pay off their debts. They paid off their debts and then were in debt to us instead of Europe.
Roosevelt negotiated the end of this conflict with the 1905 Treaty of Portsmouth. He won a Nobel Peace Prize for doing so.
Happens under Roosevelt. The Japanese gov't will agree to limit emigration to the U.S. if the U.S. works to repeal anti-Japanese legislation.
An agreement btw/ the U.S. and Japan. Stated our mutual respect for each other and committal to the Open Door policy.
Great White Fleet
In 1907, Roosevelt sent the U.S. Naval fleet around the world as a display of our power.
Wilson's approach. Respect other nations' rights and support the spread of democracy
After the Tampico Incident, Wilson sent troops to Mexico. The ABC powers of South America mediated the dispute.
Aka "Black Jack" Pershing. He was the general who led the forces against Villa. The forces were called the AEF (American Expeditionary Forces).
Carranza and Pancho Villa
This man replaced Huerta, the dictator. However, a band loyal to this other man, a violent gov't challenging dude, tried to take over. Wilson sent troops (the AEF) to stop Villa.
We remained this is WWI until 1917. We had official policy declaring it.
Lusitania, Sussex, Arabic
American merchant ships sunk by German U-Boats. One of the main reasons the U.S. enters the war.
This was Germany's new weapon. With it, they sunk pretty much every merchant ship that came their way.
National Security League
A nonpartisan U.S. organization that was nationalist, militaristic, and quasi-fascist.
This message, from Germany to Mexico, was intercepted by Britain, then sent to the U.S. The telegram stated that if Mexico allied itself with Mexico, Germany would help Mexico to take back portions of the U.S.
War Industries Board
Acted as a central institution or agency for the collection, maintenance, and distribution of materials, information. Created for industrial mobilization to support the war effort.
National War Labor Board
Acted as a "supreme court" for labor, mediating disputes and working to prevent disruptions in production. Co-chaired by attorney Frank Walsh and former prez Taft. S. Gompers was also a part of it. It supported the rights of workers to unionize and to have an 8-hr day, as well as other better work conditions.
Committee on Public Information
Created by Wilson a week after U.S. entered WWI. Made with the purpose of organizing public opinion. Also became an agency for promoting the war under its chairman George Creel.
Created under the Food and Fuel Act (1917), which authorized the president to regulate the production and distribution of food and fuel necessary for the war. Herbert Hoover led the FA, which regulated through persuasion, high prices, and voluntary controls, but never resorted to mandatory food rationing.
Wilson had to create a new income tax to gain revenue for the extremely expensive war. Other methods of drawing in money included selling war bonds and saving money through the effects of the FA, etc.
A writer and cultural critic who wrote against WWI. Quote: "War is essentially the health of the state."
Labor unions during war time
Organized labor's power and prestige both grew during the war. The AFL (and S. Gompers) pledged their support to the war effort, and the AFL nearly doubled its membership from 2.7 mil in 1914 to 5 mil in 1920. However, the war also led to the demise of radical labor movements, especially the Wobblies.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Acts passed by Wilson during WWI that were very similar to the Alien and Sedition Acts. Became a convenient way to get at socialists, pacifists, radical labor activists, etc.
Debs v. U.S.
Supreme Court affirms a famous Socialist's leader's guilt in the arrest under the E+S acts for his antiwar speech.
Schenk v. U.S.
Establishes the "clear and present danger test." The defendant is guilty for sending pamphlets that urge resisting conscription to possible draftees.
Abrams v. U.S.
Court upholds Sedition Act conviction of 4 Russian immigrants who printed pamphlets against American military intervention in the Russian Revolution. Court basically endorses extreme restriction of free speech during wartime.
Treaty of Versailles
WWI. Terms: 1. Germany disarmed and stripped of its colonies in Africa. Forced to admit guilt for the war, accept French occupation of Rhineland for 15 years, and pay a huge sum of $ in reparations to GB and France. 2. Territories once controlled by the Central Powers taken by the Allies. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, and Poland got independence, and Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were created. 3. Signers of the treaty required to join the League of Nations. U.S. never actually signed it, and therefore never joined the League of Nations.
Wilson's detailed list of war aims that he presented to Congress, including: 1. a series of specific proposals for setting postwar in Europe and creating new countries out of the collapsed Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires, basically the right of all people to "self-determination." ; 2. General principles for governing internat'l conduct, including: freedom of the seas, free trade, no secret treaties, reduced aramaments, and mediation for competing colonial claims. 3. Wilson called for a League of Nations to help implement these principles and resolve future disputes.
War guilt clause
Treaty of Versailles. Says: Germany disarmed and stripped of its colonies in Africa. Forced to admit guilt for the war, accept French occupation of Rhineland for 15 years, and pay a huge sum of $ in reparations to GB and France.
League of Nations
An internat'l peacekeeping organization formed through the treaty of Versailles. Members are required to stand ready to protect the independence and territorial integrity of other nations. However, U.S. never joined it b/c it didn't sign the Treaty of Versailles.
Henry Cabot Lodge
A powerful Repub senator who was the majority leader in the House. He wanted an amended version of the T of V. The conflict btw the Dems (Wilson) and Repubs led up to a March 1920 vote in which the Dems broke w/ Wilson and voted 49 to 35 for Lodge's amended treaty, but this was still 7 votes shy of the 2/3 majority needed to sign the treaty. B/c of this, the U.S. never signed the T of V and thus never joined the LoN, thus significantly weakening the LoN.
Wilson claims it will be a "great and solemn referendum on the T of V issue. Harding, the Repub candidate, wins overwhelmingly, even though he's a hack politician w/ no polit experience and a vague and ambiguous campaign. His promise of a return to normalcy attracted voters exhausted by the war.
Czar Nicholas II had been overthrown in March 1917 by a group of forces who wanted change. Then, the radical Bolsheviks decided they also wanted change - from the new system headed by Alex Kerensky.
A radical revolutionary group in Russia. In November 1917, they take control of the Russian gov't. In March 1918, they sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. This makes the war suckier for the Allies. France and Britain send troops to Russia to deal with the increasingly worsening polit and military situation, and by Aug 1918, we send troops too. We are there officially to protect the Open Door policy, but really b/c we are an anti-Bolshevik participant in Russia's civil war. We are there until 1920.
Leader of the Bolsheviks, who promised "peace, land, and bread" to all.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
A separate peace treaty btw Bolshevik Russia and Germany. Angered the Allies b/c they lost a military ally and Germany could now make a massive troop shift to the Western Front.