chem 13

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70 terms

unit cell

the smallest group of particles within a crystal that retains the shape of the crystal

crystal

a solid in which the particles are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern

amorphous solid

a solid that lacks an ordered internal structure

allotropes

2 or more diff. molecular forms of an element in the same physical state

evaporation

vaporizing at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling

vaporization

the conversion of a liquid to a gas below the boiling point

boiling point

the temp at which vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external

normal boiling point

the temp at which vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to 1 atmosphere

melting point

the temp at which a solid changes to a liquid

sublimationt

he change of a solid directly to a vapor

kinetic theory

all matter consist of tiny particles that are in constant motion

kinetic energy

the energy object has due to its motion

barometer

a device used to measure atmospheric pressure

atmospheric pressure

the pressure resulting from the collision of atoms and molecules with objects

vapor pressure

a measure of the force exerted by a gas above a liquid

according to the kinetic theory collisions between molecules in a gas

are perfectly elastic

which of the following statements is part of the kinetic theory

all the above

the average speed of oxygen molecules in air is about

1700 kn/h

which of the following statements is NOT true according to the kinetic theory

only particles of matter in the gaseous state are in constant motion

particles in a gas are best described as

small hard spheres with significant volumes

which of the following statements is NOT true about the movement of particles in a gas

particles usually travel uninterrupted indefinitely

barometer

instrument is normally used to measure atmospheric pressure

pascal(Pa)

is SI unit of pressure

what is one standard atmosphere of pressure in kilopascals

1 atom/101.3kpa

standard conditions when working with gases are defined as 0*C/101.3kpa

0*C/101.3kpa

how does the atmospheric pressure at altitudes below sea level compare with the atmospheric pressure at sea level

below sea level its higher

what causes gas pressure in a container such as a helium balloon

simutaneous collisions of fast moving particles in container

the pressure of a gas in a container is 152mm Hg this is equivalent to

0.2atm

the temp at wich the motion of particles theoretically ceases is

O K

what happens to the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter as the temp of the sample is increased

average kinetic energy increases

kelvin

is temp directly proportional to average kinetic energy

what happens to the range of energies of the particles in matter when the temp is increased

the range of energies becomes broader

the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substance__

is directly poportional to the temp of the substance

when a gas is heated__

of the absorbed energy's converted to potential energy and same converted to kinetic energy

Consider an iron cube and an aluminum cube. If the two cubes were at the same temperature, how would the average kinetic energy of the particles in iron compare with the average kinetic energy of the particles in aluminum?

There would be no difference in the average kinetic energies.

The average kinetic energy of water molecules is greatest in

steam at 100C*

what is the key difference between a liquid and a gas

intermolecular attractions

which states of matter can flow

liquids only

What happens to the temperature of a liquid as it evaporates?

decrease

which are the first particles to evaporate from a liquid

particles with the highest kinetic energy

what happens at the rate of evaporation of a liquid as the liquid is cooled

it decreases

why does a liquid's rate of evaporation increase when the liquid is heated

more molecules have enough energy to overcome attract forces holding them in the liquid

Which of the following will evaporate the fastest

water at 40 degrees C

In a dynamic equilibrium between the liquid state and the gas state, what is true about the rate of evaporation?

it is equal to the rate of condensation

If a liquid is sealed in a container and kept at constant temperature, how does its vapor pressure change

it increases at first, then remains constant

An increase in the temperature of a liquid

causes the vapor pressure of a liquid to increase

If energy is added to a boiling liquid what happens to the temperature of the liquid

It does not change

When the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure, the liquid

begins to boil

what is the pressure when a liquid is boiling at its normal boiling point

101.3kpa

water could be made to boil at 105 degrees Celsius instead of 100 degrees Celsius by

increasing the External pressure

When the external pressure is 505 kPa what is the vapor pressure of water at its boiling point?

505 kPa

The normal boiling point of chloroform, which has a higher vapor pressure than water at 100*C is

Lower than the normal boiling point of water

which of the following best describes the motion of the particles in a piece of steel

all are moving

Compared to melting points of ionic compounds, the melting points of molecular solids tend to be

Lower

most solids

are dense and difficult to compress

Crystals are classified into how many different crystals systems

7

crystals are characterized by particular patterns that repeat in how many dimensions

3 only

unit cell

the smallest group of particles in a crystal that retains the shape of the crystal is called the

how do crystal systems differ

in the angles between faces and the number of edges of equal length

evaporation

The escape of molecules from the surface of hte liquid is known as

which of the following elements has the ability to undergo sublimation

iodine

sublimation

The direct change of a substance from a solid to a gas is called

which of the following is an ex of a phase

water vapor

How are conditions of pressure and temp, at which two phases coexist in equilibrium, shown on a phase diagram

by a line separating the phases

how many faces are in a hexagonal crystal system

8 or 6?

into how many systems are crystals classified

7

how many phases of water are in equilibrium at the triple point

3

gas pressure

results frm the force exerted by a gas per unit sufface area of an object

vacuum

any empty sace w/ no part and no pressure

standrd atmosphere

results from the collisions of atms and loecules in air w/ objects

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