Earth Science Semester 1 Exam Review Terms

115 terms by MochaMonkey44 Plus

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andesitic magma

magma that is a mix of basaltic and rhyolitic; eruption may or may not be explosive

anticline

arch-shaped, upward fold in rock

atmosphere

the gaseous layer of a planet usually retained by its gravity

basaltic magma

magma that has low viscosity and low silica and gas content; eruption is non-explosive

batholith

a large mass of hardened igneous rock beneath all layers of sedimentary rock

biosphere

the system of Earth by which living organisms exist

cinder cone volcano

volcano formed of volcanic rock and ash; erodes quickly

climate

long-term weather patterns of a particular area

composite volcano

volcano that is tall and steep; formed of lava and volcanic debris

continental drift

theory proposed by Alfred Wegener that the continents once formed a single supercontinent that broke up and drifted apart

convection

process of heat transfer by the circulation or movement of a gas, liquid, or plastic material

core

innermost layer of the earth; divided into an inner and outer core

correlation spectrometer

instrument used to measure volcanic gases

crust

the outermost layer that forms the surface of the earth; upper part of the lithosphere

cryosphere

the frozen water or ice system of a planet

differentiation

a process creating different layered compositions of a planet

dike

vertical intrusion of magma between rock layers

equilibrium

two opposing forces in balance, where two opposite events are occurring at equal rates

food chain

line of plants and animals that shows the order in which organisms are eaten

food web

a diagram that shows the connections among food chains in an ecosystem

footwall

block of rock below the slant of a fault

graben

a lower block of rock between two normal faults

guyot

a volcanic island under sea that has been cut off by wave erosion

hanging wall

block of rock above the slant of a fault

Hawaiian eruption

non-explosive or very mild volcanic eruption

horst

an uplifted block of rock between two normal faults

hydrologic cycle

a natural and continuous cycle of Earth that recycles and distributes Earth's water; often called the water cycle

hydrosphere

the water system of the earth; includes solid, gas, and liquid water

laccolith

intrusive rock that pushes its way between sedimentary strata in the shape of a dome

lava

molten rock on Earth's surface

lithosphere

the solid, crustal layer of Earth

magma

molten rock beneath Earth's crust

magnitude

measure of the total amount of energy released during an earthquake

mantle

middle layer of the earth; composed of an upper and lower mantle

Mercalli intensity scale

scale that measures the effects or severity of an earthquake

mineral

solid, inorganic substance with a crystalline structure

moment magnitude scale

newer magnitude scale that measures the amount of moved (displaced) rock along a fault to determine the strength of an earthquake

monocline

a ramp-like fold between flat rock layers at different elevations

normal fault

fault that occurs when two tectonic plates are moving apart from each other; the hanging wall drops relative to the footwall

Pangaea

supercontinent which connected the landmasses of the southern and northern hemispheres

Panthalassa

meaning "all seas"; name of the single, large ocean that surrounded Pangaea

plate tectonics

the theory that the lithosphere is broken into pieces that float on the asthenosphere

plinian eruption

the most powerful, explosive type of volcanic eruption

pyroclastic flow

volcanic flow that contains a high concentration of gases, ash, and small rocks

reverse fault

fault that occurs when two tectonic plates collide; the hanging wall rises relative to the footwall

rhyolitic magma

magma that has a high viscosity and high silica and gas content; eruption tends to be very explosive

Richter scale

scale of magnitude based on the size of seismic waves produced by an earthquake

rock cycle

natural and continuous cycle of Earth that recycles Earth's minerals

scarp

cliff-like landform created by a normal fault

seafloor spreading

process by which the Earth's lithospheric plates pull apart from each other, creating gaps that are filled with magma from the asthenosphere

seamount

an underwater volcano

seismograph

instrument used to record and measure vibrations from earthquakes or earth tremors

shield volcano

volcano that has tall, broad slopes; formed by repeated, gradual lava flows

sill

horizontal intrusion of magma between rock layers

strike-slip fault

fault that occurs when two tectonic plates are sliding sideways against each other in opposite directions

strombolian eruption

an intermittent explosive volcanic eruption

subduction

sinking of one tectonic plate beneath another

syncline

U-shaped, downward fold in rock

tectonic cycle

natural and continuous cycle of Earth that recycles Earth's lithospheric plates

thermodynamics

the study of energy and its transformations.

tiltmeter

instrument used to measure ground swelling

viscosity

ability of a substance to resist flowing

volcanic neck

eroded volcanic feature that formed from magma cooling in the central vent of a volcano

abrasion

wearing away or grinding by friction

atmosphere

the gaseous layer of a planet, usually retained by its gravity

backwash

water that flows back into the ocean after a wave has broken

biomass

organic material made from plants and animals

biosphere

the living organisms of Earth

clast

an individual particle or grain in sedimentary rock

cleavage

how a crystal breaks or splits when stressed

correlation spectrometer

instrument used to measure volcanic gases

delta

triangular deposition of fine, fertile soil at the mouth of a river

deposition

placement of weathered rock and sediment by erosion

dissolution

process of dissolving

erosion

transport and deposition of weathered rock

extrusive

forming outside, on the surface of Earth's crust

fjord

long, narrow bay created when ocean water fills a glaciated valley

fold axis

semi-dark line that indicates the ridge of a fold on a geologic map

geologic map

shows locations and types of rocks and other features, like faults and folds

hachure marks

teeth-like marks on contour lines that indicate a depression or sunken area

homogeneous

having a uniform structure or composition

horizon

layer of distinct soil

hydrolysis

chemical reaction involving ions in water (OH- and H+)

hydropower

use of water to generate electricity

hydrosphere

the water system of the earth—solid, liquid, and gas

inorganic

formed from non-living materials

intrusive

forming inside, under Earth's crust

kinetic

related to or possessing motion

liquefaction

weakening of oversaturated soil caused by seismic waves

lithosphere

the cool, rigid shell that includes the crust and uppermost mantle; composed of plates that move around on the underlying, plastic asthenosphere

loess

fertile accumulation of soil and sediment deposited by wind

luster

how a mineral appears to reflect light

mass wasting

downhill movement of rock and sediment caused by gravity

medium

substance which enables the transport of weathered rock and sediment

methane

compound of carbon and hydrogen (CH4)

mineral

solid, inorganic substance with a crystalline structure

moraine

accumulation of unsorted rock and sediment deposited by a glacier

nonrenewable

unable to be recycled or replenished in a short period of time

oxidation

chemical reaction in which minerals are weakened by oxygen

renewable

able to be recycled or replenished in a short period of time

respiration

the process by which oxygen combines with food to release energy and carbon dioxide

saltation

when wind lifts sediment off the ground and carries it a short distance

sediment

weathered rock, bone fragments, soil, and other particles carried by wind, water, and ice

soil

top layer of mineral and organic material on Earth's surface

stalactite

chemical sedimentary rock hanging from the ceiling of a cave

stalagmite

chemical sedimentary rock growing from the floor of a cave

streak

the true color of a mineral in powdered form

terminal fall velocity

velocity at which sediment is deposited by wind

suspension

state in which small, light particles are mixed with, but not dissolved in, a fluid or solid.

swash

water that flows onto the shore after a wave has broken

talus

angular pile of broken rock found at the bottom of a mountain

threshold velocity

velocity required to transport sediment by wind

topographic map

also known as a contour map; shows shape, steepness, and height of ground features by using contour lines

tsunami

series of destructive ocean waves caused by vibrations in Earth's crust

windbreak

row of trees or shrubs used to reduce the force of wind

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