Is the adaptive immune system present at birth?
Does the adaptive immune system have memory?
What is the main cell type involved in adaptive immunity?
All lymphocytes originate in bone marrow
Where do T and B lymphocytes originate?
Where do T cells mature?
Where do B cells mature?
CD4 Helper Cells; TH, T4 and
CD8 Cytotoxic Cells Tc, T8
What are the two main types of T cells (give all possible names)
activated, B cells differentiate into clone cells (family of cells descended from one) which are plasma cells
What cells descend from B lymphocytes?
> antibodies --> antigen-antibody complexes --> disable antigen.
What do plasma cells release into the plasma?
any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies ("ANTIbody GENerator")
What is an antigen?
Complete antigens have Immunogenicity and Reactivity; incomplete lack Immunogenicity
Describe the difference between complete and incomplete antigens.
The part of an antigen that is immunogenic is called the _______ ________.
Cell-mediated / Antibody-mediated (humoral)
Name the two types of adaptive immunity.
In which type of immunity do cells attack other cells?
In which type of immunity are antigen-antibody complexes formed?
T8 cells recognize infected body cells, cancer cells, and transplanted cells
Name the types of cells that may be destroyed in cell-mediated immunity.
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
What name is given to the "self" antigen
The MHC complex found on all body cells (except RBCs) is MHC ____.
The MHC complex found on cells involved in the immune response is MHC ____.
CD8 T cells
Which type of T cell recognizes MHC I?
CD4 T cells will
Which type of T cell recognizes MHC II?
Do MHC I complexes display endogenous or exogenous antigens?
Do MHC II complexes display endogenous or exogenous antigens?
with perforin punching holes in the membrane
How do cytotoxic T cells (TC) kill infected cells?
they will stimulate T8 and B cells, but that help is absolutely essential to mounting an immune response
How do helper T cells (TH) "help" cytotoxic cells in the immune response?
MHC I; "not ok" piece of the foreign protein (antigen); endogenously
Bacteria A has infec/ed an individual's cells and is also present freely in his/her tissue .
Which MHC complex is found on the surface of the infected cell? What will this MHC complex display? How does it process and present?
T8; kill abnormal cell by punching holes in it with perforin
Bacteria A has infected an individual's cells and is also present freely in his/her tissue .What type of T cell will detect the foreign antigen? How will the T cell respond to this antigen?
MHC II; The APC; digested pieces of the pathogen, brings to surface of cell; presents endogenously
Bacteria A has infected an individual's cells and is also present freely in his/her tissue .Assume the bacteria in the tissue is engulfed by a macrophage. Which MHC complex is found on the surface of the macrophage?
What will this MHC complex display?
T4; will process & present endogenously
Bacteria A has infected an individual's cells and is also present freely in his/her tissue .Assume the bacteria in the tissue is engulfed by a macrophage. What type of T cell will detect this foreign antigen? How will the T cell respond to this antigen?
What type of lymphocyte is involved in antibody-mediated immunity?
Heavy & light chains; variable and constant regions
Describe the basic structure of an antibody?
How many antibody classes are there?
Which antibody is the first to respond to an infection?
IgG 2nd responder
Which antibody is the most common?
Which antibody is passed from mother to fetus?
Which antibody is involved in allergic reactions?
Which antibody is a receptor on B cells?
Neutralization Agglutination Precipitation
How does an antigen-antibody complex disable antigen? (name a few ways)
occurs after an harmful antigen has
been encountered for the first time IgM
What is the primary immune response?
quicker more effective; occurs after an previously encountered antigen reappears Igm then IgG
What is the secondary immune response?
first Ig released by plasma cells after intitial exposure; occurs late during first exposure, and faster, qucker, & more effective in future encounters
How does the primary immune response differ from the secondary immune response?
happens withing the body by exposure to a trigger of maternal ex=illness/mother to baby
Define naturally acquired immunity
outside source such and an injection/direct like rabies
Define artificially acquired immunity.
created when body cells are challenged vs from the outside
Describe the difference between passive and active immunity.
are gamma globulins, immunoglobulins, and Ig
other words that mean the same thing as antibody
ability to provoke immune response by stimulating the production of T cells or specific antibodies
the antigen binds, and must fit snugly varies with type of antigen it binds to
variable region of an antibody is where
determines the class of antibody - IgG, IgA, IgM,
IgD, IgE - and dictates the cells and chemicals it can bind to
constant region of an antibody is where
which antibody is involved in body secretions?
react with activated T and B cells that are present
incomplete antigen cannot provoke the body into making activated T and B cells, but it can
clones-->plasma cells-->antibodies-->antigen-antibody complexes-->disable antigen.
pathway of stimulated B cells