Western Civilization Chapters 26 and 27

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Western Civilization Chapters 26 and 27

Algeria

called Metropolitan France. Close colonies across the Mediterranean. Massive efforts at terrorist activities to make a statement. French government responded to Algerian terrorism brutally. Call their president back, and he gives them their independence and they trust him because he has such good credentials and is such a good nationalist.

Boer War

Afrikaners vs Britain; Boers won the first, Britain won the second. The first was when the Boers fought England in order to regain the independence they had given up to obtain British help against the Zulus.

Suez Canal

Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.

Benjamin Disraeli

British statesman who as Prime Minister bought controlling interest in the Suez Canal and made Queen Victoria the empress of India; extended the vote to the rich middle class in order to broaden the political base of the conservative party

William Gladstone

A Liberal British Prime Minister who gave concessions to various parties and ultimately introduced bills for Irish self-governance

Zulus

A native African tribe in South Africa who fought with the Boers and Brits for control of the land; spoke Bantu, engaged in both herding and agriculture, emigrated from the north in large numbers over a long period; forged their people into a fighting nation and fought white colonists; they were eventually defeated but still moved into south Africa and settled there

Direct Rule

system of colonial government in which the imperialist power controlled all levels of government and appointed its own officials to govern the colony.

Rudyard Kipling

English author of novels and poetry who was born in India

Cecil Rhodes

British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe

Commodore Matthew Perry

the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.

Union of South Africa

the historic predecessor to the present-day state of the Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910, with the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and the Orange Free State,

Eugenics

the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)

memsahib

a term of respect used by Indians to address female social superiors. Used in the 19th century to refer to British women in colonial India, the term came to connote the blatant ethocentrism and spoiled behavior associated with these women.

Boxer Rebellion

1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops

Berlin Conference (1884-1885)

14 European nations meet to lay down rules for the division of Africa. they agreed that any European country could claim land in Africa by notifying other nations of their claims and showing they could control the area.

George Clemenceau

French premier that lived through 2 German invasions of France and was determined to prevent future invasions

Triple Alliance

An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.

U-Boats

German submarine, taken from the German 'Unterseeboat'

Trench Warfare

type of fighting in which both sides dig trenches and attempt to overrun the enemy's trenches; fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.

Paris Peace Conference

Wilhelm II of Germany was forced to abdicate on November 11, 1918 (Vets day), forming the German Republic. The great rulers and countries excluding Germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed by the German Parliament until later (they had to, although they did not follow it) Germany was to take the blame for the War.

T.E. Lawrence

Colonel who led Britain to help the Arabs overthrow the Ottoman Empire. Known as a "romantic" hero, because after he led these attacks, the Middle East was under control of the Allies. Otherwise known as Lawrence of Arabia

Fourteen Points

the generous war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations. The fact that they were generous angered France and Britain, so they were not approved.

Balfour Declaration

British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI

Marne River (First Battle of the Marne)

a World War I battle at this location where a combined French and British force stopped the progression of the German army to Paris in 1918

Gallipoli

A poorly planned and badly executed Allied campaign to capture the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during 1915 in World War I. Intended to open up a sea lane to the Russians through the Black Sea, the attempt failed with more than 50 percent casualties on both sides.

Verdun

WWI France vs. Germany, France led by Nivelle. Poorly defended, Germans lost, lost 700,000 men

Archduke Francis Ferdinand

Heir to Austria-Hungary who was murdered by radical Serbian nationalists. This resulted in Austrian mobilization with the full support of Germany. Soon this was no longer a war in the Balkans, but an entire world war.

Triple Entente

An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.

Schlieffen Plan

Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.

Battle of the Somme

Also known as the Somme Offensive, fought from July 1916 to November 1916, was one of the largest battles of the First World War. With more than one million casualties, it was also one of the bloodiest battles in human history. The Allied forces attempted to break through the German lines along a 95-mile front north and south of the River Somme in northern France. One purpose of the battle was to draw German forces away from the Battle of Verdun; however, by its end the losses on the Somme had exceeded those at Verdun.

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