Medieval Religion

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Mrs. Tierney's class

Vernacular

This term regards the language one would speak at home. Latin was the language used in church but a different language was usually used at home.

Literal/Historical Sense

This "sense" is when biblical interpreters identify actual text meaning in any given biblical passage.

Indulgence

A release from all or part of punishment for sin given by a bishop or someone of higher ranking. This pardon can be given fully or partially depending on what good deed has been done to get one of these in the first place.

Absolution

The action of a priest as a mediator of grace, standing "in the person of Christ," concluding the sacrament of Reconciliation. It cleanses us from our sins through Christ's loving mercy and gives us strength to start anew.

Relics/Holy Places

Very often people would go and visit these "places" on a pilgrimage. Sometimes these places would have boxes with the bones of a holy person in them and one could stick their head in the bottom of the box to be close to the bones of the dead holy person.

Penance

Sacrament where one voluntary accepts punishment to repent for a wrong doing.

Sacrament

Outward visible sign of inward and spiritual grace (grace means gift).

Lateran Council of 1215

These people decided that Christians were supposed to receive Communion at least once a year.

Communion

In Medieval Ages, people were supposed to receive the body and blood of Jesus at least once a year.

Allegorical Sense

This "sense" is when biblical interpreters identify spiritual meaning in any given biblical passage.

Tropological Sense

This "sense" is when biblical interpreters identify moral meaning in any given biblical passage.

Anagogical Sense

This "sense" is when biblical interpreters identify prophetic and future predictions in any given biblical passage.

Baptism

In Medieval Ages, most Christians received this sacrament while still being an infant.

Transubstantiation

When the bread and wine during the Mass turns into the body and blood of Jesus Christ. This is not a symbol. Christians, although they could not see the actual flesh and blood, believed it turned into the ACTUAL body and blood.

Investiture Controversy

The ______________ ____________ was between the Church and the State in Medieval Europe, the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. It began as a dispute in 1075 between Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Pope Gregory VII concerning who would control appointments of church officials.

First Crusade

(1096 - 1099) _________ ____________ called by Pope Urban II which captured Jerusalem. (only militarily successful Crusade)

Second Crusade

Saint Bernard of Clairvaux preached the ______ ________, which failed. Saladin, the king of Egypt and Syria, conquered Jerusalem in 1187. Saladin's reconquering of Jerusalem lead to yet another Crusade. The failure of the Crusades was blamed on the Crusaders themselves by saying that they were not holy enough and in order to fight a holy war the Crusaders must be more holy.

Third Crusade

A ______ ____________ enlisted Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, Phillip Augustus of France, and Richard the Lion-Hearted of England. This crusade failed at its attempts to retake Jerusalem from Saladin.

Fourth Crusade

(1202 - 1204) ________ ___________ which by a strange series of events attacked and sacked Constantinople after failing to retake Jerusalem for the second time. This attack on Constantinople had a very negative effect on the Byzantine Empire for the rest of its history.

Penitential System

This was something that regarded the Church's Rules of the sacrament of Penance. Some sins would have different penances than other sins and so the _____________ ____________ helped organize the punishments for different sins.

Confession

This was the act of a penitent disclosing his sinfulness before a priest in the sacrament of Penance in the hope of Absolution. In Medieval times, ______________ would be done not to only one priest but it was a public event.

Purgatory

In the Medieval ages, this was a place for purification where one can complete his or her Penance they were supposed to do before they died however, he or she died before his or her Penance was completed and so they end up in ___________.

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