Medical Terminology - week 2

127 terms by AnnamariePearson 

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aden

gland

anter

before, front

caud

lower part of the body, tail

cephal

head

end, endo

in, within, inside

exo

out of, outside, away from

hist

tissue

ologist

specialist

ology

the science or study of

path

disease, suffering, feeling, emotion

plasia

development, growth, formation

poster

behind, toward the back

stasis

control, maintenance of a constant level

abdominal cavity

Contains primarily the major organ of digestion. This cavity is frequently referred to simply as the abdomin.

adenectomy

The surgical removal of a gland.

adenocarcinoma

is a malignant tumor that originates its glandular tissue

adenoma

is a benign tumor that arises in, or resembles, glandular tissue

adenomalacia

is the abnormal softening of a gland.

adenosclerosis

is the abnormally hardening of a gland

anaplasia

is a change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other

anatomy

The study of the structures of the body.

anomaly

is a deviation from what is regarded as normal

anterior

Means situated in the front.

aplasia

is the defective development, or the cogenital absence of an organ or tissue

bloodborne transmission

is the spread of a disease through contact with blood or other body fludis that are contaminated with blood

caudal

Means toward the lower part of the body.

cephalic

Means toward the head.

chromosomes

are the genetic structures located within the nucleas of each cell

communicable disease

is any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects.

cogenital disorder

is an abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth.

cytoplasm

is the material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus

distal

Means situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure.

dorsal

Refers to the back of the organ or body.

dysplasia

is abnormal development of growth of cells, tissues, or organs

endemic

fers to the ongoing presence of a disease with a population, groups, or area

endocrine glands

which produce hormones, do not have ducts.

epidemic

is a sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population, group, or area

epigastric region

Is located above the stomach.

ethology

is the study of the causes of disease.

exocrine glands

such as the sweat glands, secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body

functional disorder

produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified

genetic disorder

also known as hereditary disorder, is a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene.

geriatrician

a physician who specializes in the care of older people

hemophilia

is a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing.

histology

is the study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues

homeostasis

The process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment.

hyperplasia

is the englargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues

hypertrophy

is a general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not in the number, of cells in the tissues

hypogastric region

is located below the stomach

hypoplasia

is the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells

iatrogenic illness

is an unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment.

idiopathic disorder

is an illness without known cause

infectious disease

is an illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bateria and viruses

inguinal

pertaining to the groin

medial

Means the direction toward, or nearer, the midline.

mesentery

is a fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interal abdominal wall

midsagittal plane

is the sagittal plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves

nosocomial infection

is a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting.

pandemic

refers to an outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide

pelvic cavity

Is the space formed by the hip bones and it contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems.

peritoneum

is a multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdomin cavity.

periotonitis

is the inflammation of the peritoneum

phenyllketonuria

which is commonly known as PKU, is a genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalaine hydroxylase is missing.

physiology

The study of the functions of the structures of the body.

posterior

Means situated in the back.

proximal

Means situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure.

retroperitoneal

means located behind the peritoneum (retro means behind and periton means peritoneum, and eal means pertaining to)

stem cells

are unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division.

thoracic cavity

Is also known as the chest cavity or throat, surrounds and protects the heart and the lungs. The diaphragm is the muscle that separates the thoratic and abdominal cavities.

transverse plane

Is a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.

umbilicus

is commonly known as the belly button

vector-borne transmission

is the spread of certain disease due to the bite of a vector, such as flies, mites, fleas, ticks, rats, and dogs

ventral

Refers to the front or belly side, of the organ or body.

anatomic position

Describes the body assuming that the individual is standing in the standard position - standing up straight and holding the arms at the sides with the hands turned with the palms turned toward the front.

vertical plane

Is the up-and-down plane that is a right angle to the horizon

midsagittal plane

Is the sagittal plane that divices the body into equal left and right halves.

sagittal plane

Is a vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions

frontal plane

Is a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.

horizontal plane

Is a flat crosswire plane, such as the horizon.

transverse plane

Is a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.

superior

Means uppermost, above, or toward the head

inferior

Means lowermost, below, or toward the feel

lateral

Means the direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline

dorsal cavity

Is located along the back of the body and head, contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate body functions and is divided into two portions: the cranial cavity and the spinal davity

cranial cavity

Is located within the skull, surrounds and protects the brain.

spinal cavity

Is located within the spinal column, surrounds and protects the spinal cord.

ventral cavity

Is located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis.

abdominopelvic cavity

Refers to abdomino and pelvic cavity as a single unit.

inguinal

Means relating to the groin, refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen.

hypochondriac regions

Are located on the left side and right sides of the body and are covered by the lower ribs - means below the ribs

hypo

means below

chondr/i

means cartrilage

lumbar regions

are located on the left and right sides near the inward curve of the spine

ac, al, ar, eal

means pertaining to

umbilical region

surrounds the umbilicus, which is commonly known as the belly button or navel.

iliac regions

are located on the left and right side over the hip bones (ili means hip)

parietal peritoneum

is the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal walls

visceral peritoneum

is the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity.

visceral

means relating to the internal organs

cytology

is the study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell

cell membrane

is the tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by separating them from its external environment

nucleus

is surrounded by the nuclear membrane. It is a structure within the cell that has two important functions (1) it controls the activities of the cell, and (2) it helps the cell divide

stem cells

are unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division.

endocrine glands

which produce hormones, do not have ducts

genes

fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity

genetics

is the study of how genes are transformed from parents to their children and the role of genes in health and disease

dominant gene

when it is is inherited from either parent, the offspring will inherit that genetic condition or characteristics

recessive gene

when it is inherited from both parents, the offspring will have that condition, when only one parent has a normal gene, the offspring will not have the condition, although they will still have the same trait

genome

is the complete set of genetic information of an individual

DNA

is the abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid. Human DNA contains thousands of genes that provide the information essential for heredity, determining our physical appearane, disease risk, and other traits.

genetic mutation

is a change of the sequence of a DNA molecue. Potential causes of genetic mutation include exposure to radiation or environmental pollution.

cystic fibrosis

is a generic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digesive system

down syndrome

is a genetic variation that is associatd with characteristic facial appearane, learning disabilities, and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease

hemophilia

is a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing. This blood coagulation disorder is characterized by spontaneous hemmorrhage or severe bleeding following an injury

huntington's disease

is a genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child. Each child of a parent with the gene has a 50/50 chance of inheriting this defective gene. This condition causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife. this damage eventually results in uncontrolled movements and the loss of some mental abilities.

muscular dystophy

is the term used to describe a group of geneic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement

phenylketonuria

is commonly known as PKU - is a genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing. It can be detected by a blood test performed on infants at birth.

Tay-Sachs disease

is a fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance build up in tissues and nerve cells in the brain.

tissue

is a group or layer of similarity specialized cells that join together to perform certain specific functions. The four main types are epithellial, connective, muscle, and nerve

histology

is the study of the structures, composition, and function of tissues

epithelial tissues

form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body. They also form glands

epithelium

is the specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and surface layer of mucous membrane.

endothelium

is the specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lympth vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs

dense connective tissue

such as the bone and cartilage, form the joints and framework of the body

adipose tissue

as known as fat, provides protective padding, insulation, and support

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