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• _____ are the leading cause of death in people with diabetes accounting for 70% of deaths.

Cardiovascular diseases

• ______dietary fat is shown to have the strongest effect on blood cholesterol levels and TLC's recommendation is that it contribute less than _____ percent of total kcalories.

B. Saturated 7

• A diet for a person with a fat malabsorption syndrome would typically contain how many grams of fat?

C. 25 to 50 grams

• A high risk of heart attack correlates with high blood levels of

C. low-density lipoproteins

• A high risk of weight-related health problems is seen in women whose waist circumference begins to exceed

C. 35 inches

• A low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of

C. high-density lipoprotein

• A meal providing 1200 kcalories contains 10 g of saturated fats 14 g of monounsaturated fats and 20 g of polyunsaturated fats. What is the percentage of energy supplied by the lipids?

B. 33

• A person with a fasting blood glucose level of 120 mg/dL would be classified as

prediabetic

• A recommendation for clients with hypertension is a low-sodium diet that is

A. high in potassium and high in calcium

• A source of omega-3 fatty acids is

D. fish oil. flaxseeds

• A whole-body response to inflammation that persists for more than a few days and remains unresolved is called

A. systemic inflammatory response syndrome

• According to the Dietary Guidelines what should be the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake?

D. 50

• After a meal most of the fat that eventually empties into the blood is in the form of particles known as

B. chylomicrons

• After digestion of proteins what products are absorbed into the circulation?

D. Free amino acids and a few dipeptides and tripeptides

• After you and your friend Dolores share pretzels and animal crackers she announces that she wants to start digesting her food by watching television. You inform Dolores that

carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth through the action of amylase so she has already begun digesting the snacks

• All of the following are an association between type 2 diabetes and body fat except

D. overweight people with the disease who lose weight show no improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance.

• All of the following are characteristics of the process of digestion except

C. saliva contains enzymes that digest sugars fats and

• All of the following are consequences of smoking tobacco except

B. it lowers blood pressure

• All of the following are features of high-protein diets except

C. they provide for long-term weight maintenance

• All of the following are included in medical nutrition therapy for constipation except

B. a low-fiber diet

• All of the following are properties of fiber except

it elevates blood glucose levels

• All of the following are rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids except

A. palm oil

• All of the following are sources of dietary carbohydrates except

fish

• All of the following are symptoms of lactose intolerance except

constipation

• All of the following foods are rich sources of soluble fiber except

legumes

• All of the following may be caused by dumping syndrome except

B. a reduction in heart rate

• All of the following meet the guidelines for a post-gastrectomy diet except

A. unlimited liquids with meals

• Although the precise cause of metabolic syndrome is not known the close relationship between _____ and _____ is thought to be partly responsible.

abdominal obesity_and_ insulin resistance

• Among the following which is the most important strategy for an underweight person who wishes to achieve a healthy body weight?

A. A high-kcalorie diet plus regular exercise

• An appropriate food for a client with celiac disease is

C. applesauce

• An index of a person's weight in relation to height is called

A. body mass index

• An omega-3 fatty acid has its first double bond on the

C. third carbon from the methyl end.

• Approximately how many grams of fat would be contained in an 800-kcalorie meal that provides 50% of the energy from carbohydrate 20% from protein and the remainder from fat?

C. 27

• As a general rule what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight?

C. 1200

• As a result of immune and inflammatory responses to stress all of the following changes occur except

B. lower respiratory rate

• Clinicians suggest providing _____ to meet protein daily requirements for most patients under severe stress.

B. 1.0 to 2.0 g protein/ kg bodyweight

• Dan an alcoholic for the past 20 years has been diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis. How can his physician determine whether pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is helping Dan or not?

B. monitor his fecal fat concentrations

• Diet plans for patients with diabetes should provide _____ carbohydrate sources.

consistent

• Dietary recommendations for a person with diverticulitis include a

A. high-fiber diet

• During metabolic stress which of the following metabolic changes would be expected?

D. A. hypoglycemia C. negative nitrogen balance

• Examples of liquids that can be incorporated into a diet for a client with an order for spoon-thick liquids include all of the following except

C. yogurt

• For critically ill patients _____ provide the majority of energy.

C. fat and carbohydrate

• For patients with celiac disease dietitians recommend adapting their diets by

A. following a gluten-free diet

• For what length of time should a person with a high risk of CHD try to lower LDL cholesterol with a trial of Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) before considering drug therapy?

D. 3-6 months

• Frequent reflux of highly acidic gastric fluids results in

A. inflammation and scarring of the esophagus

• Glycogen is stored mainly in which of the following tissues?

Muscle and liver

• If an individual with diabetes has an elevated LDL cholesterol level saturated fats should be limited to <_____ percent of kcalories and cholesterol intake should be limited to <_____ milligrams daily.

7 200

• If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid what will be the course of action?

B. Protein synthesis will be limited

• Important factors in the selection of a margarine product include all of the following except

C. it should contain primarily omega-3 fatty acids.

• In a weight reduction regimen the most realistic time frame for losing 10% of initial body weight is

C. 6 months

• In response to metabolic and respiratory stress the body experiences

B. breakdown of muscle mass

• In the healthy state the lining of the small intestine has millions of villi but in certain diseases the intestine appears "shaved" when viewed under a microscope. Which of the following would be the most likely consequence of not having these villi?

B. Nutrient absorption will be poor

• In what organ is most of the body's glycogen found?

Muscles

• In which form are most dietary lipids found?

C. Triglycerides

• Inflammation and lesions along the ileum and colon are called

B. Crohn's disease

• Into what region of the intestinal tract does the stomach empty?

D. Duodenum

• Jim is a 45 year old who eats fast food at least 3 times a week and smokes a pack of cigarettes each day. He just had a physical examination and was told that his body mass index is 24. In what category would Jim's BMI be classified?

D. Healthy weight

• Obesity is to type 2 diabetes as high _____ is/are to atherosclerosis.

C.

• Pain bloating or discomfort in the upper abdominal area is termed

B. dyspepsia

• Prediabetes is used to classify blood glucose levels between normal and those of diabetes; that is if a fasting plasma glucose is between:

100 and 125 mg/dL

• Protein sparing in the body is best achieved when a person ingests

C. adequate levels of carbohydrate and fat

• Ronnie eats a fairly balanced diet but wants to include a good source of omega-3 fats. Which of the following should be your recommendation?

B. Salmon

• Steve is finally able to eat solid foods after being hospitalized with acute pancreatitis six days ago. Which kind of diet would be most appropriate at this time?

D. low

• Sweating shakiness and disorientation are all symptoms of

hypoglycemia

• The backflow of gastric contents from the stomach into the mouth is

D. A. an esophageal stricture. B. heartburn. C. reflux

• The function of protease is to

A. hydrolyze proteins

• The home health care nurse is visiting Paul Cantu an 82-year-old man recovering from a stroke. Upon assessment the nurse observes that Mr. Cantu has lost weight has a hoarse voice and exhibits a gurgling noise after swallowing. In this situation the nurse should suspect

B. dysphagia

• The known health risks for being underweight include all of the following except

A. diabetes

• The purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process is to

A. raise the pH of chyme

• Three-year-old Jenny is on antibiotics for 10 days. In order to prevent complications her mother was advised to add _____ to her diet.

D. yogurt

• Tom was overweight when he was 13. During puberty he continued to gain weight steadily until at age 23 when he decided to lose weight. Tom successfully lost 50 pounds. Which of the following most likely happened to Tom's fat cells?

A. They shrank in size but did not decrease in number

• Total cholesterol of 242 mg/dL would be classified as

D. high.

• Type 2 diabetes generally develops in children and teens who

all of the above

• Upon eating a hamburger in what organ is the hydrolysis of its proteins initiated?

B. Stomach

• What element is found in proteins but not in carbohydrates and fats?

D.

• What is a bolus?

B. Portion of food swallowed at one time

• What is the best approach to weight loss?

D. Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure

• What is the highest total blood cholesterol concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?

C. 199

• What is the main explanation for the difference in basal metabolic rates between males and females of the same body weight?

C. Males have a higher percentage of lean body mass

• What is the major source of "good" cholesterol?

C. Endogenous synthesis

• What is the major sterol in the diet?

C. Cholesterol

• What is the most likely explanation for the fatty liver that develops from protein deficiency?

D. Inability of the liver to synthesize lipoproteins for fat export

• What is the primary absorption site for digestible carbohydrates?

Small intestine

• What is the primary action of orlistat a weight loss drug?

C. It inhibits pancreatic lipase

• What is the primary storage form of carbohydrate in the body?

Glycogen

• What is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain?

C. Denaturation

• What is used to diagnose the cause of dysphagia?

E. A. barium swallow study B. endoscopy in the esophageal lumen C. neurological examination

• What lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery?

C. High-density lipoprotein

• What primary factor governs the quality of a food protein?

B. Essential amino acid content

• What structure controls the passage of material from the small intestine to the large intestine?

B. Ileocecal valve

• What structure controls the release of material from the stomach to the small intestine?

B. Pyloric sphincter

• What type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil?

B. Monounsaturated

• When blood glucose concentration falls what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?

Glucagon

• Which of the following best describes clients with type 2 diabetes?

weight loss needed

• Which of the following body organs does not secrete digestive enzymes?

A. Liver

• Which of the following can raise the energy needs of a critically ill patient?

B. mechanical ventilation

• Which of the following contains the least amount of fiber?

White rice

• Which of the following defines the body's set point?

D. Point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight

• Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?

C. Monounsaturated

• Which of the following do(es) not function as a transport protein?

A. Collagen

• Which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate?

A. Fever

• Which of the following ethnic populations has the lowest relative risk for developing type 2 diabetes?

European Americans

• Which of the following factors has the most influence on the body's metabolic rate?

D. Amount of lean body tissue

• Which of the following foods contains cholesterol?

D. Roasted

• Which of the following foods would be the most appropriate for a person with diverticulosis?

D. wheat bran

• Which of the following has the greatest effect on blood glucose?

carbohydrate

• Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form?

B. Corn oil

• Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form?

D. Coconut oil

• Which of the following is a characteristic of cholesterol?

B. It is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis

• Which of the following is a characteristic of dietary fibers?

They are classified according to solubility in water

• Which of the following is a common source of resistant starch?

Unripe bananas

• Which of the following is a description of chyme?

B. A semiliquid mass of partially digested food released by the stomach into the small intestine

• Which of the following is a feature of an essential amino acid?

B. It must be supplied by the diet

• Which of the following is a feature of diabetes?

Dietary management should focus on total carbohydrate intake rather than the type of carbohydrate consumed

• Which of the following is a feature of leptin?

B. It is a satiety signal

• Which of the following is a feature of peristalsis?

D. It consists of wavelike muscular contractions resulting from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles

• Which of the following is a significant factor associated with interpretation of body composition values?

C. It is possible that muscular people may be classified as overweight

Which of the following is a typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose? ,

Blood glucose levels that fall too low signal the release of glucagon

Which of the following is characteristic of the eating pattern of people with bulimia nervosa? ,

C. Binge eating typically occurs after a period of strict dieting

Which of the following is not a characteristic of marasmus? ,

B. Affects brain development only minimally

Which of the following is not a rich source of dietary starch? ,

Fruits

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