a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing
chronic airflow limitation
An overlapping group of pulmonary disorders characterized by predominantly "obstructive" functional abnormalities.
narrow or restricted airways
trapped air in alveoli
increase mucus production
pathophysiology of COPD
hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; chronic bronchitis - bronchiole lining inflamed, excess mucus formed; emphysema - walls of alveoli break down; HYPOXIC DRIVE (not in asthma)
loss of lung elasticity and hyperinflation of the lung
2 major changes of emphysema
enzymes that break down proteins
damage the alveoli and the small airways by breaking down elastin
high levels of proteases causes what?
Flattens the diaphragm
hyperinflated lung flattens the ________________
what frequently follows URI or a cold
emphysema patients need to use accessory muscles to inhale and exhale. True or false?
because it is difficult for oxygen to move from diseased lung tissue into the bloodstream
why in late stage emphysema has a low arterial oxygen (PsO2) level?
inflammation of the bronchi and bronchiols persisting over a long time
increase in number and size or mucous glands
chronic inflamtion of bronchitis causes an incrase in what?