a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders.
wealthy landowners who held most of the power
the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population.
two officials who commanded the army and directed the government. Their power was limited, their terms were only 1 year long, and they could not be elected again until 10 years had passed.
the aristocratic branch of Rome's government that had both legislative and administrative functions. There were 300 members that were chosen by the upper class, and they exercised great influence over foreign and domestic policy.
eight judges chosen for one year by Centuriate Assembly to oversee civil and criminal courts-had to be at least 39 years old
an assembly of all people who could bare arms, including the Senate, Centuriate, and Tribal Assemblies.
always drawn from the ranks of the senators, these people were originally tax assesors, but later came to have the power to supervise the conduct and morality of their fellow senators.
public finance and record officials (roughly a treasurer). They had to be at least 25 years old.
a group of ten officials began writing down Rome's laws. These laws were carved on twelve tablets, or tables, and hung in the Forum. They became the basis for later Roman law. All free citizens had a right to the protection of the law.
all citizen-soldiers are members for life. Selects consuls, makes laws.
citizens are grouped according to where they live, and are members for life. They elect tribunes and make laws.
a leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army.
"Roman peace", this is a period of peace and prosperity of the Roman empire.
male dominance in the family
overcrowded apartment blocks
large military units made up of about 5,000 heavily armed men.
The second part of the Bible that explains the life of Jesus and the time that followed. The New Testament begins with the four Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John).
the group or body of ordained priests in a religion-are distinguished from the laity.
the body of religious worshipers
conflict between groups within the same country followed by their deaths.
king-the one whom the Bible had said would come to rescue the Jews.
the 12 men who were Jesus' disciples, or pupils.
the dispersal of the Jews after the Romans stormed their temple
believed to be one of the many theories of the fall of Rome, this sickness swept through the land and killed about 1/10th of the Roman population
A theory to the fall of Rome, inflation is a drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices.
large landed estates
one of the greatest feats of Roman engineering and a model for the ages. The name comes from the Latin word colossus, meaning "gigantic". Its construction was started by the Emperor Vespasian and was completed by his sons, emperors Titus and Domitian. For centuries after its opening in AD 80, spectators, both rich and poor, cheered a variety of free, bloody spectacles-from gladiator fights to animal hunts.
a stadium where chariot races were held.
a temple dedicated to the gods associate with the major planets. Built by Marcus Agrippa and destroyed by fire, it was built hundreds of years later by Emperor Hadrian. Later it became a Christian church.
"Bread and Circuses"
A phrase coined during the reign of Julius Caesar, this phrase talks about what Caesar believed was needed to keep the masses happy, and what he frequently gave them.
men who protected the rights of the plebeians from unfair acts of the patrician officials.
Edict of Maximum Prices and Wages
in 302/ beginning of the fourth century, Diocletian set price ceilings on over 1,000 goods and services. Prices continued to rise to the point where official production became unprofitable.
Rome's Golden Age
a period of Roman Literature roughly from 100 BC to 14 AD
comes from the Latin word "imperium"; translates to power of command. It is the basis of our word "emperor".
a confederation of Latin cities neighboring Rome; each member held equal rights in the coalition. Rome conquered them and broke up the Latin League.
a priest that supervises several local churches.
the father or head of the Catholic church
a group of three rulers
published list of names; a man on the list was declared a public outlaw and could be hunted down and killed for a reward. His sons lost their citizenship. Many of the proscribed were guilty of nothing more than being rich.
Broken into three different wars, this is the general name of the long struggle between Rome and Carthage.
form of entertainment that uses irony and sarcasm; Romans were proud of this
letters written by the apostle Paul to the gentiles of whom he was converting to Christianity
they evolved from the bodyguards that protected a general. Augustus established several units from his own troops and they became the later emperors' personal elite force.
Edict of Milan
This was an edict issued by Emperor Constantine that said Christianity was a religion that was now approved by the emperor. Because of this, most Christian persecution ended in the empire. Theodosius made the religion the official one of the empire.
Symbol meaning "by this sign" IHS
The day before the battle of Milvian Bridge, Constantine prayed for divine help. He reported that he then saw an image of a cross-a symbol of Christianity. He ordered artisans to put the Christian symbol on the soldier's shields. After they won the battle, he credited the success to the Christian God, and issued the Edict of Milan.
Battle of Cannae
Serious conflict arose at the BATTLE OF CANNAE (ka nee) in 216 B.C.
-Hannibal encircled the Romans and wiped out a force at least a third larger than his own. Hannibal won his greatest victory at Cannae
Battle of Zama
Rome/strategy #2: The Romans had another trick up their sleeves. Under the leadership of General Scipio the Elder (Sip ee o), they invaded north Africa ... forcing Hannibal to return home to defend Carthage. (Scipio was believed to be Hannibal's match in terms of military strategy.)
-This Roman counter-invasion was the beginning of the end for Hannibal. (Battle of ___)
-BATTLE OF ____ in 202 B.C. - Hannibal was defeated and fled to save his life.
Battle of Actium
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic. It was fought between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII.
foreign soldiers who fought for money
designed by Roman engineers to bring water into cities and towns.
those European languages descended from Latin, namely French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, and Spanish
the mixing of elements of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman culture produced a new culture.