chapter 4: Carbohydrates

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Simple Carbohydrates (examples and sources)

contain one or two molecules; Commonly called sugar; a monosaccharide or disaccharide such as glucose; 7 examples: glucose, fructose galactose, ribose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose

Complex Carbohydrates (examples and sources)

a carb with three or more monosaccharides; A nutrient compound consisting of long chains of glucose molecules such as starch, glycogen, and fiber; examples: raffinose, stachyose, starch, glycogen, fiber

Monosaccharides

Glucose, fructose, galactose, and ribose; The simplest of carbohydrates. Consists of one sugar molecule, the most common form of which is glucose;

Disaccharides

lactose, maltose, and sucrose; A carbohydrate compound consisting of two monosaccharide molecules joined together

Oligosaccharides

complex carbohydrates that contain 3 to 10 monosaccharides

polysaccharides

A complex carbohydrate consisting of long chains of glucose (hundreds to thousands)

starch

A polysaccharide stored in plants; the storage form of glucose in plants. Two forms: amylose (straight chain) and amylopectin (highly branched)

glycogen

A polysaccharide stored in animals; the storage form of glucose in animals;

soluble fibers

Fibers that dissolve in water; can be fermented;

insoluble fiber

Fibers that do not dissolve in water; cannot be fermented by bacteria in the colon;

the mouth, the small intestine (majority),

Where carbohydrate digestion occurs

pancreatic amylase

Enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the SI that digests any remaining starch into maltose

In the mouth(?)

where in the GIT carbs are broken down

glucose or excess carbs

transported in the bloodstream to the cells, where it is either used for energy, stored in the liver or muscle as glycogen, or converted to fat and stored into adipose tissue;

fiber (health benefits)

Reduces the risk of colon cancer; prevents hemorrhoids, constipation, and other intestinal problems; reduces the risk of diverticulosis; may enhance weight loss; may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Dietary recommendations for light exercise

12.5% carbohydrates

reactive hypoglycemia

occurs when the pancreas secretes too much insulin after a high carbohydrate meal; symptoms: shakiness, anxiety, sweating, irritability, headache, weakness, and rapid or irregular heartbeat

fasting hypoglycemia

occurs when the body continues to produce too much insulin, even when someone has not eaten; symptoms occur over 4 hours after a meal.

lactose intolerance

A disorder in which the body does not produce sufficient lactase enzyme and therefore cannot digest foods that contain lactose, such as cow's milk.

Insulin

Hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to increased blood levels of glucose; facilitates uptake of glucose by body cells

glucagon

Hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to decreased blood levels of glucose; causes breakdown of liver stores of glycogen into glucose

Dietary recommendations for moderate exercise

45% carbohydrate

Dietary recommendations for intense exercise

67% carbohydrate

RDA for carbohydrates - Adults 19+

130 g carbohydrate/day

AI for fiber - women

25 g /day

AI for fiber - men

38 g/ day

AI for fiber per 1,000 kcall /day

14 grams

Diabetes

A chronic disease in which the body can no longer regulate glucose

type 1 diabetes

10% of diabetics; A disorder in which the body cannot produce enough insulin; cause unknown; symptoms: lethargic, and trouble breathing, frequent urination; treatment: administration of insulin by injection several times daily

type 2 diabetes

A progressive disorder in which body cells become less responsive to insulin; Causes: genetics, obesity, physical inactivity; Treatment: weight loss, healthful eating patterns, and regular exercise, oral medications; daily injections

hypoglycemia

A condition marked by blood glucose levels that are below normal fasting levels

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