Variations in Speech & Language:
Speech & Language
SPEECH: Pronunciation (accent)
LANGUAGE: Syntax (grammatical rules), Vocabulary
A person's individual speech pattern;
--Characteristic of one's personality
Types of Dialect
1) REGIONAL--based on geographical boundaries
2) SOCIAL--based on Social class; Ethnic group;
--not all members speak the dialect
**dialects should not be thought of as wrong or disordered, but as different.
Standard American English (SAE)
--Relatively free from regional characteristics
--Used by national network newscasters
--Printed form: dictionaries, grammar books; most printed matter
General American English
--Devoid of regional pronunciations or characteristics
--Synonymous w/ SAE
It's important to study dialectical differences because:
You do NOT work w/ a person w/ a DIFFERENCE in articulation/phonological therapy. You may work on voice, stuttering, etc, instead--
*unless they elect to have therapy
*typically this will be an adult from a foreign country.
Accent Reduction Therapy
SLP helps speakers of nonstandard English
--reduces their accent
--becomes more intelligible
--strictly elective therapy
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Speakers
--LEP children in a school setting
--May initially appear "language delayed"
--May be referred for S-L evaluation
-Child must have delays in both languages to be considered language delayed
--If delay is English only, then child is LEP
--Takes 3-5 years to develop proficiency in a 2nd language for normal children
Research of LEP Speakers show:
If you work with a child with a language delay in his native language, he will improve in the 2nd language also.
Dilemma: In which language do you work w/ the child?
3 major REGIONAL DIALECTS within the US:
1) Southern American English
2) Eastern American English
3) General American English
3 major VOWEL PRONUNCIATION areas (and their corresponding Regional Dialects)
1) North (Northern cities shift: EAE)
2) South (Southern Shift: SAE)
3) West (Low Back Merger: GAE)
Phonological Patterns of each Region:
--The shifting place of vowel articulation
--Three regional shifts: see previous slide.
--As the articulation of one vowel changes, surrounding vowels in the vowel quadrangle will likewise shift in production--causing a "chain reaction" in place of articulation of neighboring vowels.
SOCIAL & ETHNIC DIALECTS: In US, 3 predominant dialects, based upon social class & cultural/ethnic background:
1) SPANISH Influenced English
2) ASIAN/PACIFIC Influenced English
3) AFRICAN-AMERICAN Vernacular English (AAVE)
a) also known as:--Black English Vernacular --Black English --Ebonics --Vernacular Black English
b) has several regional variations
c) AAVE characterized by: Lexical (vocabulary), Grammatical & Phonological features
History of AAVE (not substandard English!!)
--developed as a PIDGIN language between traders in Africa & Europe
--Neither group could speak the other one's language
--Ended up w/ a pidgin language consisting of:
a) reduced vocab & grammar b) shared characteristics of African & European languages.
--When slaves came to America, the pidgin language was used --New vocabulary & grammar were added
--Children born to the slaves learned the language as their native language; hence became a CREOLE language
--AAVE has evolved from this Creole language