Human Biology Exam #2

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What do glands do?

Secrete hormones directly into the blood stream
Specific effects on specific organs
Delay between release of hormones and it's arrival at target cells.

What is hormonal control adequate for??

Digestion, Salt and Water Balance, Metabolism, Growth

4 Characteristics of Hormones

Steroids, proteins or amines (amino acid derivatives)
Active in small amounts
Most under negative feedback control
Rapidly degraded in the liver (enzymes in blood break down amines)

What are male sex hormones also known as?

Androgens

Where are male sex hormones produced?

Testes

What is the principal Androgen?

Testosterone

What is the main function of Testosterone?

Sperm making

Name a few secondary sex characteristics of the male hormones

Growth of the larynx
Deepening of the voice
Growth of the beard & public hair
Development of larger & stronger muscles
Stimulation of sweat glands to produce fatty acids
may cause sebaceous glands in the skin to become overactive... acne

What are female sex hormones also known as?

Estrogen

Where is the female hormone produced?

Ovaries

What does Estrogen Stimulate??

Breast development, external genitalia

Estrogen determines?

The distribution of body fat

How is the menstrual cycle produced?

Estrogens, progesterone, FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), & LH (luteinizing hormone) all interact to produce the menstrual cycle

What does the menstrual cycle do?

egg maturation and release

Where is the adrenal cortex

Outer region of the adrenal gland (a double gland)

What does the Adrenal Cortex do?

Secretes 2 major groups of adrenal steroids: glucocorticords and mineralocorticoids

It also secrets male sex hormones

What do glucocorticolids do?

helps maintain the glucose level in the blood
suppress inflammatory responses to tissues injury or infection

How do glucocorticolids maintain glucose levels in the blood?

Promotes the conversion of proteins & fats to glucose

Explain what cortisol does

suppresses inflammatory responses to tissue injury and infection
the drug is used in anti inflammatory agents in treatment of arthritis, asthma and other chronic inflammatory disorders

What do mineralocorticoids do?

Promote Na+ reabsorption (by the Kidney)
helps control the body's salt and water balance

Aldosterone

stimulates the cells in the kidney to reabsorb Na+ and H20

What does an adrenal tumor in women cause?

facial hair & masculine characteristics

Epinephrine is the same as

Adrenaline

What does the Adrenal Medulla do?

secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

What is the primary function of the Adrenal Medulla?

create the conditions for a "fight or flight" response

How does the body prepare for a "fight of flight" response

stimulate the heart to beat faster
raise blood pressure
increase blood sugar concentrations
dilate respiratory passages for more effective breathing

What do Epinephrine and norepinephrine work in concert with?

the sympathetic nervous system

What does the Thyroid gland do?

Secretes thyroid hormone and calcitonin

What is the thyroid hormone?

an amino acid with 3 or 4 iodines

What is the function of the Thyroid Hormone?

increase metabolic activity of tissues throughout the body
(specifically, it stimulates oxidation in the mitochondria of various target cells; this increases energy availability & metabolic rate)

What is hyperthyroidism

Overproduction of Thyroid Hormone (TH)

Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism

higher than normal body temperature
profuse perspiration
High Blood Pressure
loss of weight
irritability
muscular weakness
insomnia
exophthalmia

How do you control hyperthyroidism

Anti-thyroid drugs
surgical removal or partial destruction of part of the thyroid gland with radioactive iodine

What is Hypothyroidism

An underproduction of TH (Thyroid Hormone)

How is hypothyroidism caused?

malfunction in the thyroid gland and insufficient iodine in the diet

How is Hypothyroidism treated?

Administration of the Thyroid Hormone
Or with iodine

What is calcitonin?

Produced by the thyroid gland

What does calcitonin do?

inhibit the release of Ca++ ions from bone (or promote Ca++ deposition in to the bones)
Lowers the calcium level in the blood

Where is the pituitary gland?

Lies below the hypothalamus
(also a double gland)

What is the posterior pituitary (lobe) a storage are for?

oxytocin and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)

What is the function of oxytocin

causes the contraction of uterine muscles

what is the function of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)?

stimulates collecting ducts of the kidney to absorb more water (so it will not be excreted as urine)

Where are Oxytocin and ADH Produced and Secreted from?

the Hypothalamus

What does the anterior Pituitary secrete

Prolactin, growth hormones

What is the function of prolactin?

Stimulates milk production by female mammary glands

What are the functions of the growth hormones

plays a critical role in promoting normal growth

How does growth hormones specifically promote normal growth?

promotes protein synthesis and the use of body fat for energy metabolism

Growth Hormone deficiency in children causes?

Pituitary dwarf

Growth Hormone oversupply in adults causes?

acromegaly

Growth Hormone oversupply in children causes?

Pituitary giant

What does TSH stand for?

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

What does TSH do?

stimulates the thyroid gland to produce the thyroid hormone

What does ACTH stand for?

Adrenal Cortex Thyroid Hormone

What does ACTH do?

Produces cortical hormones

What does FSH stand for?

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

What does LH Stand for

Lutinizing Hormone

What do LH and FSH do

Gonads produce sex hormones... especially in women

The Pituitary glad is also called

the "Master Gland"

What does the Pancreas do?

Secretes the pancreatic hormones

Pancreatic hormones produce?

cells involved with production and release of digestive enzymes. Produce Islet Cells

Islet cells produce 2 hormones

insulin and glucagon

What does insulin do?

lowers blood sugar

How is insulin activated?

a rise in blood sugar or amino acid concentration in the blood

How does insulin lower blood sugar

stimulates uptake of glucose by muscle and fat cells
stimulates conversion of glucose to glycogen in lover and muscle cells

How does Diabetes Mellitus develop

results from a deficiency of insulin
the liver and muscles don't convert enough glucose into glycogen and the liver produces to much new glucose

Glucagon

has effects opposite those of insulin
causes an increase in blood sugar by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver & by stimulating the breakdown of fats and proteins

Where is the Parathyroid hormone

Para- means next to or alongside. So it is Next to the Thyroid Gland

What does the Parathyroid hormone do?

Raises Ca++ in the blood

What does PTH stand for?

ParaThyroid Hormone

How dose the PTH raise blood levels of Ca++

Stimulates the Ca++ reabsorption in the Kidneys
Induces certain bone cells to release Ca+ to the blood (98% of Ca is found in the Human Bone)

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