What do glands do?
Secrete hormones directly into the blood stream
Specific effects on specific organs
Delay between release of hormones and it's arrival at target cells.
4 Characteristics of Hormones
Steroids, proteins or amines (amino acid derivatives)
Active in small amounts
Most under negative feedback control
Rapidly degraded in the liver (enzymes in blood break down amines)
Name a few secondary sex characteristics of the male hormones
Growth of the larynx
Deepening of the voice
Growth of the beard & public hair
Development of larger & stronger muscles
Stimulation of sweat glands to produce fatty acids
may cause sebaceous glands in the skin to become overactive... acne
How is the menstrual cycle produced?
Estrogens, progesterone, FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), & LH (luteinizing hormone) all interact to produce the menstrual cycle
What does the Adrenal Cortex do?
Secretes 2 major groups of adrenal steroids: glucocorticords and mineralocorticoids
It also secrets male sex hormones
What do glucocorticolids do?
helps maintain the glucose level in the blood
suppress inflammatory responses to tissues injury or infection
How do glucocorticolids maintain glucose levels in the blood?
Promotes the conversion of proteins & fats to glucose
Explain what cortisol does
suppresses inflammatory responses to tissue injury and infection
the drug is used in anti inflammatory agents in treatment of arthritis, asthma and other chronic inflammatory disorders
What do mineralocorticoids do?
Promote Na+ reabsorption (by the Kidney)
helps control the body's salt and water balance
What does the Adrenal Medulla do?
secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
What is the primary function of the Adrenal Medulla?
create the conditions for a "fight or flight" response
How does the body prepare for a "fight of flight" response
stimulate the heart to beat faster
raise blood pressure
increase blood sugar concentrations
dilate respiratory passages for more effective breathing
What is the function of the Thyroid Hormone?
increase metabolic activity of tissues throughout the body
(specifically, it stimulates oxidation in the mitochondria of various target cells; this increases energy availability & metabolic rate)
Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
higher than normal body temperature
High Blood Pressure
loss of weight
How do you control hyperthyroidism
surgical removal or partial destruction of part of the thyroid gland with radioactive iodine
What does calcitonin do?
inhibit the release of Ca++ ions from bone (or promote Ca++ deposition in to the bones)
Lowers the calcium level in the blood
what is the function of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)?
stimulates collecting ducts of the kidney to absorb more water (so it will not be excreted as urine)
How does growth hormones specifically promote normal growth?
promotes protein synthesis and the use of body fat for energy metabolism
Pancreatic hormones produce?
cells involved with production and release of digestive enzymes. Produce Islet Cells
How does insulin lower blood sugar
stimulates uptake of glucose by muscle and fat cells
stimulates conversion of glucose to glycogen in lover and muscle cells
How does Diabetes Mellitus develop
results from a deficiency of insulin
the liver and muscles don't convert enough glucose into glycogen and the liver produces to much new glucose
has effects opposite those of insulin
causes an increase in blood sugar by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver & by stimulating the breakdown of fats and proteins
Where is the Parathyroid hormone
Para- means next to or alongside. So it is Next to the Thyroid Gland