BIO 222 Test 1 Ch 14

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brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon, cerebrum

What are the four major regions of the brain?

medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain

what are the three parts of the brain stem?

thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus

what are the three regions of the diencephalon?

cerebrum

what is the largest part of the brain?

cerebellum

what is the second largest part of the brain?

falx cerebri

what extension of the cranial dura mater separates the two cerebral hemispheres?

falx cerebella

what extension of the cranial dura mater separates the two cerebellar hemispheres?

tentorium cerebella

what extension of the cranial dura mater separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum?

protects brain cells from harmful substances and pathogens by preventing passage of many substances from blood into brain tissue. It is formed by tight junctions that seal together endothelial cells of brain capillaries and thick basement membrane around the capillaries. The foot processes of astrocytes press up against the capillaries to reinforce barrier.

Describe the blood-brain barrier

cerebrospinal fluid

the clear substance that circulates through cavities in the brain and spinal cord. It absorbs shock and protects the brain and spinal cord. helps transport nutrients and waste

formed in the choroid plexuses (network of capillaries in the walls of ventricles). Ependymal cells line ventricles. Plasma is drawn from the choroid plexuses through ependymal cells (absorb/filter) into the ventricles to produce CSF.

describe the formation of CSF

Lateral ventricles through interventricular foramins to third ventricle (plus more) through cerebral aqueduct to fourth ventricle (plus more) through lateral and median apertures to subarachnoid space where it is absorbed by arachnoid villi and enters venous blood to be taken to the heart and lungs.

Describe the circulation of CSF

medulla oblongata

the part of the brain that contains pyramids formed by the large corticospinal tracts. Contains two vital centers: cardiovascular center and respiratory center.

fourth

what ventricle is found in the medulla oblongata

decussation

the term for the crossing of ascending and descending pyramid tracts that occur in the medulla oblongata

midbrain

the part of the brain that functions in movements of head, eyes, and trunk in response to visual and auditory stimuli. It exhibits reticular formation.

cerebral peduncles

the term for the axons of the corticospinal, corticopontine, and corticobulbar tracts in the midbrain

tectum

the portion of the midbrain that contains four rounded elevations. two superior ones (superior colliculi) and two inferior ones (inferior colliculi)

substantia nigra

the portion of the midbrain that is a large area with dark pigments. it helps control subconscious muscle activities. Loss of neurons here is associated with Parkinson disease.

red nucleus

the portion of the midbrain that helps control voluntary movements of the limbs

reticular formation

extends from the upper part of the spinal cord, throughout the brain stem, and into the lower part of the diencephalon. Contains the RAS which helps maintain consciousness

vermis

the central constricted area of the cerebellum

anterior,posterior lobes

the part of the cerebellum that controls subconscious aspects of skeletal movement

flocculonodular lobe

the part of the cerebellum that contributes to equilibrium and balance

cerebellar cortex

the part of the cerebellum that contains gray matter in the form of parallel folds called folia

arbor vitae

the part of the cerebellum that contains tracts of white matter

cerebellar peduncles

the three-pair part of the cerebellum that attaches to the brain

cerebellum

the part of the brain that coordinates movements, regulates posture, and balance. it is the second largest part of the brain.

the part of the brain known as the intermediate mass. It is a major relay station for most sensory impulses and contains several nuclei. It contributes to motor functions by transmitting information from the cerebellum/basal ganglia to the cerebral cortex. It also relays nerve impulses between different areas of the cerebrum and plays a role in the maintenance of consciousness

Describe the thalamus

the part of the brain that controls many body activities and is one of the major regulators of homeostasis. It controls the ANS, produces hormones, and regulates emotional and behavioral patterns, eating and drinking, body temperature, and circadian rhythms

Describe the hypothalamus

mamillary

the region of the hypothalamus that serves as a relay station for reflexes related to smell

tuberal

the region of the hypothalamus that connects to the pituitary

supraoptic

the region of the hypothalamus that forms the hypothalmohypophyseal tract to link the nervous system and hormones

preoptic

the region of the hypothalamus that regulates some autonomic activities

epithalamus

the part of the brain that consists of the pineal gland

melatonin

the pineal gland (of the epithalamus) secretes the hormone _______ which induces sleep

cerebrum

the part of the brain that is the main place of integration.

gray

the cerebral cortex is composed of ___ matter

gyri

the term for the "hills" of the cerebrum

sulci

the term for the "valleys" of the cerebrum

longitudinal fissure

the part of the cerebrum that separates the cerebral hemispheres

frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital

what are the four lobes of the cerebrum?

central sulcus

the part of the cerebrum that separates the frontal and parietal lobes

precentral gyrus

the part of the cerebrum that is known as the primary motor area

commissural

the type of tract in cerebral white matter that contains axons that conduct impulses between gyri in SEPARATE hemispheres

association

the type of tract in cerebral white matter that contains axons that conduct impulses between gyri in the SAME hemisphere

projection

the type of tract in cerebral white matter that contains axons that conduct impulses from the cerebrum to lower parts of CNS

basal ganglia

made up of three nuclei deep within each cerebral hemisphere. They help initiate and terminate movements, suppress unwanted movements, and regulate muscle tone

limbic system

a ring of structures on the inner border of the cerebrum and floor of the diencephalon. Serves as the "emotional brain" as it governs emotional aspects of behavior. It is involved in olfaction and memory

somatosensory association area

what association area of the cerebrum determines shape and texture of an object; also orientation and relationship of one body part to another?

visual association area

what association area of the cerebrum relates to present and past visual clues? It also works with the facial recognition area

auditory association area

what association area of the cerebrum relates to sound; understand and allows us to differentiate between speech, music, and gun shots?

orbitofrontal cortex

what association area of the cerebrum discriminates odors and works with the olfactory bulb?

wernicke's area

what association area of the cerebrum produces meaning to speech by recognizing words. It works with the broca's speech area (pronunciation)

common integrative area

what association area of the cerebrum interprets sensory information and allows formation of thoughts based on the perceived sensory information?

prefrontal cortex

what association area of the cerebrum aids in intellect, complex learning, judgment, reasoning, conscious, mood, ect? It composes a person's personality

premotor area

what association area of the cerebrum relates to motor activities of a complex and sequential nature?

frontal eye field area

what association area of the cerebrum controls the voluntary scanning movements of the eyes?

left

____ hemisphere function: receives somatic sensory signals from and controls muscles on the right side of the body

right

____ hemisphere function: receives somatic sensory signals from and controls muscles on the left side of the body

left

____ hemisphere function: reasoning, numerical and scientific skills, ability to use and understand sign language, spoken and written language

right

____ hemisphere function:
musical and artistic awareness, space and pattern perception, recognition of faces and emotional content of facial expressions, generating emotional content of language, generating mental images to compare spatial relationships, identifying and discriminating among odors

alpha

the type of brain wave that has 8-10Hz; present during light resting

beta

the type of brain wave that has 14-30 Hz; present when nervous system is active; wakefulness

theta

the type of brain wave that has 4-7 Hz; indicative of emotional distress

delta

the type of brain wave that has 1-5 Hz; occurs during deep sleep

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