brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon, cerebrum
What are the four major regions of the brain?
medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
what are the three parts of the brain stem?
thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
what are the three regions of the diencephalon?
what is the largest part of the brain?
what is the second largest part of the brain?
what extension of the cranial dura mater separates the two cerebral hemispheres?
what extension of the cranial dura mater separates the two cerebellar hemispheres?
what extension of the cranial dura mater separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum?
protects brain cells from harmful substances and pathogens by preventing passage of many substances from blood into brain tissue. It is formed by tight junctions that seal together endothelial cells of brain capillaries and thick basement membrane around the capillaries. The foot processes of astrocytes press up against the capillaries to reinforce barrier.
Describe the blood-brain barrier
the clear substance that circulates through cavities in the brain and spinal cord. It absorbs shock and protects the brain and spinal cord. helps transport nutrients and waste
formed in the choroid plexuses (network of capillaries in the walls of ventricles). Ependymal cells line ventricles. Plasma is drawn from the choroid plexuses through ependymal cells (absorb/filter) into the ventricles to produce CSF.
describe the formation of CSF
Lateral ventricles through interventricular foramins to third ventricle (plus more) through cerebral aqueduct to fourth ventricle (plus more) through lateral and median apertures to subarachnoid space where it is absorbed by arachnoid villi and enters venous blood to be taken to the heart and lungs.
Describe the circulation of CSF
the part of the brain that contains pyramids formed by the large corticospinal tracts. Contains two vital centers: cardiovascular center and respiratory center.
what ventricle is found in the medulla oblongata
the term for the crossing of ascending and descending pyramid tracts that occur in the medulla oblongata
the part of the brain that functions in movements of head, eyes, and trunk in response to visual and auditory stimuli. It exhibits reticular formation.
the term for the axons of the corticospinal, corticopontine, and corticobulbar tracts in the midbrain
the portion of the midbrain that contains four rounded elevations. two superior ones (superior colliculi) and two inferior ones (inferior colliculi)
the portion of the midbrain that is a large area with dark pigments. it helps control subconscious muscle activities. Loss of neurons here is associated with Parkinson disease.
the portion of the midbrain that helps control voluntary movements of the limbs
extends from the upper part of the spinal cord, throughout the brain stem, and into the lower part of the diencephalon. Contains the RAS which helps maintain consciousness
the central constricted area of the cerebellum
the part of the cerebellum that controls subconscious aspects of skeletal movement
the part of the cerebellum that contributes to equilibrium and balance
the part of the cerebellum that contains gray matter in the form of parallel folds called folia
the part of the cerebellum that contains tracts of white matter
the three-pair part of the cerebellum that attaches to the brain
the part of the brain that coordinates movements, regulates posture, and balance. it is the second largest part of the brain.
the part of the brain known as the intermediate mass. It is a major relay station for most sensory impulses and contains several nuclei. It contributes to motor functions by transmitting information from the cerebellum/basal ganglia to the cerebral cortex. It also relays nerve impulses between different areas of the cerebrum and plays a role in the maintenance of consciousness
Describe the thalamus
the part of the brain that controls many body activities and is one of the major regulators of homeostasis. It controls the ANS, produces hormones, and regulates emotional and behavioral patterns, eating and drinking, body temperature, and circadian rhythms
Describe the hypothalamus
the region of the hypothalamus that serves as a relay station for reflexes related to smell
the region of the hypothalamus that connects to the pituitary
the region of the hypothalamus that forms the hypothalmohypophyseal tract to link the nervous system and hormones
the region of the hypothalamus that regulates some autonomic activities
the part of the brain that consists of the pineal gland
the pineal gland (of the epithalamus) secretes the hormone _______ which induces sleep
the part of the brain that is the main place of integration.
the cerebral cortex is composed of ___ matter
the term for the "hills" of the cerebrum
the term for the "valleys" of the cerebrum
the part of the cerebrum that separates the cerebral hemispheres
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
what are the four lobes of the cerebrum?
the part of the cerebrum that separates the frontal and parietal lobes
the part of the cerebrum that is known as the primary motor area
the type of tract in cerebral white matter that contains axons that conduct impulses between gyri in SEPARATE hemispheres
the type of tract in cerebral white matter that contains axons that conduct impulses between gyri in the SAME hemisphere
the type of tract in cerebral white matter that contains axons that conduct impulses from the cerebrum to lower parts of CNS
made up of three nuclei deep within each cerebral hemisphere. They help initiate and terminate movements, suppress unwanted movements, and regulate muscle tone
a ring of structures on the inner border of the cerebrum and floor of the diencephalon. Serves as the "emotional brain" as it governs emotional aspects of behavior. It is involved in olfaction and memory
somatosensory association area
what association area of the cerebrum determines shape and texture of an object; also orientation and relationship of one body part to another?
visual association area
what association area of the cerebrum relates to present and past visual clues? It also works with the facial recognition area
auditory association area
what association area of the cerebrum relates to sound; understand and allows us to differentiate between speech, music, and gun shots?
what association area of the cerebrum discriminates odors and works with the olfactory bulb?
what association area of the cerebrum produces meaning to speech by recognizing words. It works with the broca's speech area (pronunciation)
common integrative area
what association area of the cerebrum interprets sensory information and allows formation of thoughts based on the perceived sensory information?
what association area of the cerebrum aids in intellect, complex learning, judgment, reasoning, conscious, mood, ect? It composes a person's personality
what association area of the cerebrum relates to motor activities of a complex and sequential nature?
frontal eye field area
what association area of the cerebrum controls the voluntary scanning movements of the eyes?
____ hemisphere function: receives somatic sensory signals from and controls muscles on the right side of the body
____ hemisphere function: receives somatic sensory signals from and controls muscles on the left side of the body
____ hemisphere function: reasoning, numerical and scientific skills, ability to use and understand sign language, spoken and written language
____ hemisphere function:
musical and artistic awareness, space and pattern perception, recognition of faces and emotional content of facial expressions, generating emotional content of language, generating mental images to compare spatial relationships, identifying and discriminating among odors
the type of brain wave that has 8-10Hz; present during light resting
the type of brain wave that has 14-30 Hz; present when nervous system is active; wakefulness
the type of brain wave that has 4-7 Hz; indicative of emotional distress
the type of brain wave that has 1-5 Hz; occurs during deep sleep