2301 Exam 2 chapters 5 thru 9

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3/22 so far, chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 ...still working on 9

What is the minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect?

Absolute Threshold

What is the nerve that carries neural impulses to the brain's auditory areas?

Auditory Nerve

What is processing that begins with sensory receptors registering environmental information and sending it to the brain for analysis and interpretation?

Bottom-up processing

What are the parts of the middle ear?

Eardrum, hammer, anvil, and stirrup.

What is irrelevant and competing stimuli?

Noise

What are the bumps on the tongue that contain taste buds, the receptors for taste?

Papillae

The light-sensitive surface in the back of the eye that records what we see and converts it to neural impulses for processing in the brain is called what?

Retina

Which principle states that a cluster of nerve cells can fire neural impulses in rapid succession, producing a volley of impulses.

Volley Principle

What is the Law of Closure?

Gaps and other small missing pieces are closed by the brain, allowing us to perceive a complete / whole object.

What is Webers Law?

The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount) to be perceived as different.

Which theory states that color perception is produced by three types of receptors (cone cells in the retina) that are particularly sensitive to different, but overlapping, ranges of wavelengths.

Trichromatic theory

What is the process of receiving stimulus energies from the environment?

Sensation

What is gustation?

Taste

The part of the eye that protects it is called what?

Cornea

What is processing of perceptual information that starts out with cognitive processing at the higher levels of the brain?

Top Down Processing

What is the detection of information below the level of conscious awareness

Subliminal perception

What is Prosopagnosia?

Brain damage resulting in the inability to recognize all faces.

The receptors in the retina that are sensitive to light but are not very useful for color vision are called what?

Rods

What is the brain's process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to give it meaning?

Perception

What are the parts of the outer ear?

The pinna and external auditory canal.

The receptors in the retina that process information about color are called what?

Cones

What is the Difference Threshold?

The smallest difference in stimulation required to discriminate one stimulus from another 50 percent of the time; also called just noticeable difference.

Which theory states that perception of a sound's frequency depends on how often the auditory nerve fires?

Frequency Theory

What are kinesthetic senses?

Senses that provide information about movement, posture, and orientation

Which type of memory is an exact replica of an environmental message which usually lasts for a second or less.?Which type

Sensory Memory

What is Gestalt Psychology?

School of psychology emphasizing that people naturally organize their perceptions according to certain patterns.

What is the ability to perceive objects three dimensionally?

Depth Perception

What are senses that provide information about balance and movement?

Vestibular Sense

What are the sensory receptors, located under the skin, that respond to changes in temperature at or near the skin and provide input to keep the body's temperature at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit called?

Thermoreceptors

What is the sensation that warns us that damage to our bodies is occurring?

Pain

The color part of the eye is called what?

Iris

What is Akinetopsia?

The inability to see moving objects--only motionless objects are detected

Based on the trichromatic theory to see a primary color, how many cones need to be activated?

Only one type of cone is activated.

Based on the Trichromoatic theory, how many types of cones are there and what are their colors?

3 types of cones--one for each wavelength (short-blue, medium-green, and long--red

What is the Law of Continuation?

When we perceive a whole / complete object, even though the lines of the object are interrupted of blocked from view.

What is olfaction?

Smell

What are the four basic tastes?

sweet, salty, sour, bitter

What is Consciousness?

The subjective awareness of internal and external events.

What is Attention?

The internal process used to set priorities for mental functioning

What refers to ways in which our body receives information from an outside stimulus?

Sensation

What are the two parts of consciousness?

Awareness and arousal

What refers refers to the ways in which sensory information is organized to make meaning?

Perception

Thinking about your own thought processes is called what?

Metacognition

Which Law states that behaviors that are followed by a reward will increase in frequency, while behaviors that are followed by a punishment will decrease in frequency?

The Law of Effect

What is the subjective awareness of internal and external events?

Consciousness

What is the internal process used to set priorities for mental functioning?

Attention

What is the ability to focus on one auditory message and ignore others; also refers to the tendency to notice when your name suddenly appears in a message that you've been actively ignoring?

Cocktail Party Effect

What is fast and effortless processing that requires little or no focused attention?

Automaticity

What is the decline in the tendency to respond to an event that has become familiar through repeated exposure?

Habituation

Understanding that other people have private thoughts and knowledge is called what?

Theory of Mind

Name the three bones within the ear that aid in hearing.

Hammer, anvil and stirrup

Cells that transmit information from outside stimulus to the brain are called what?

Sensory receptors

Behavior that is learned but is not displayed until a reward is given is an example of what?

Latent Learning

What area of the brain is most associated with arousal?

reticular activating system

Which neurotransmitter is most affected by alcohol?

GABA

_____ is to bottom-up processing as _____ is to top-down processing

Sensation is to bottom up ans Perception is to top-down

The absolute threshold is the level at which someone can detect a stimulus ____ percent of the time.

50%

Which brain waves are most desynchronous?

Beta Waves

What brain structure is most responsible for monitoring circadian rhythms?

suprachiasmatic nucleus

What is Learning by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response.?

Classical conditioning -- Learning by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response.
Gavin recently went deep-sea fishing with some friends. Unfortunately, Gavin was extremely seasick the entire time he was on the boat, and now when he sees boats, he feels queasy. This is an example of classical conditioning

Also called instrumental conditioning; a form of learning

Operant Conditioning --A procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their own voluntary actions (AKA instrumental conditioning). Your behavior is instrumental to the outcome.
Dogs are often used in airports to detect explosives materials and/or narcotics. Their trainers teach them to smell out a certain substance by rewarding them with treats for correctly identifying a substance. This would be an example of learning under operant conditioning.
Sonia's mother is often busy and doesn't pay very much attention to her. When Sonia cries or screams, her mother comes over and scolds her. Though she doesn't like being scolded, Sonia prefers some attention to no attention at all. Sonia learns that when she wants her mother's attention, she should scream or cry. This is Operant conditioning

What is a stimulus that automatically leads to an observable response prior to any training?

Unconditioned Stimulus (US) -- stimulus that produces a response without prior learning
Robert had a serious car accident while Mozart was playing on his stereo. Now, every time Robert hears a Mozart song, he feels frightened and panicked. The car accident is the unconditioned stimulus.
Irinia's dog loves to go for walks, and she always puts a leash on him when they go out. The dog used to wag his tail as soon as they got outside, but now he wags his tail when she picks up the leash. In this case, the leash is the unconditioned stimulus.

What is the observable response that is produced automatically, prior to training, on presentation of an US?

Unconditioned Response (UR) --An unlearned response that is automatically elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.
When we see pizza we automatically begin to salivate. Salivating would be an unconditioned response.

What is the acquired response that is produced by the conditioned stimulus in anticipation of the US?

Conditioned Response (CR) --The learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after the pairing of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.
When a child hears a loud noise, he cries. The family's dog often barks loudly. Each time the child sees the dog, he cries. The crying is the conditioned response.

What is the neutral stimulus that is paired with the US during classical conditioning?

Conditioned Stimulus (CS) -- A previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits the conditioned response after being associated with the unconditioned stimulus.
Tamara normally feeds her cat canned cat food. She noticed that every time she uses her electric can opener, her cat comes to the kitchen. The sound of the can opner is the conditioned stimulus.
Gavin recently went deep-sea fishing with some friends. Unfortunately, Gavin was extremely seasick the entire time he was on the boat, and now when he sees boats, he feels queasy. In this situation, the conditioned stimulus is the boat.

Which type of Reinforcement is it when an event that, when presented after a response, increases the likelihood of that response occurring again?

Positive Reinforcement --Following a behavior with a rewarding stimulus to increase the frequency of the behavior.
Your child is good in church so you go for ice cream. Positive Reinforcement

Which type of Reinforcement is it when an event that, when removed after a response, increases the likelihood of that response occurring again?

Negative Reinforcement --Following a behavior with the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus to increase the frequency of the behavior.
Horatio's mother has been nagging him for weeks to clean the garage. When he does so, his mother's nagging ceases. Horatio's mother's nagging was a negative reinforcement
Janice is trying to teach her dog to heel, so she buys a choke collar. Every time the dog strains on the leash, the collar restricts around his neck. When the dog drops back to walk beside her, the collar loosens up. In theory, this should cause the dog to learn to walk beside Janice. This is negative reinforcement

Which type of Punishment is it when an event that, when presented after a response, lowers the likelihood of that response occurring again?

Positive Punishment -- A behavior decreases when it is followed by an unpleasant stimulus.

Which type of Punishment is it when an event that, when removed after a response, lowers the likelihood of that response occurring again?

Negative Punishment --A behavior decreases when a positive stimulus is removed from it.

People tend to have difficulty naming the color in which a word is printed when the word itself refers to a different color. This finding is called what?

The Stroop Theory

Which Law refers to two stimuli differing by the same percentage in order to be perceived as different?

Webers Law

The majority of dreaming occurs in which stage of sleep?

Stage 5

What must be presented before the US for acquisition to occur?

The Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

The visible spectrum of light is between ______ and ____ nm

between 400 and 700 nm.

The eye bends light through the ____, which does the majority of the bending of the light, and the _____, which fine tunes the light.

Cornea, Lens

The what pathway is located in the _____ lobe, whereas the where pathway is located in the _____ lobe

Temporal, Parietal

How many stages of sleep are there?

5

Which neurotransmitter is most associated with REM sleep?

Acetycholine

Which neurotransmitter has been implicated in addition?

Dopamine

Which type of memory is the system that produces and stores visual sensor memories?

Iconic Memory

True or False: Classical conditioning focuses on involuntary responses, while operant conditioning focuses on voluntary behaviors.

True

What are biological activities that rise and fall in accordance with a 24-hour cycle?

Circadian Rhythms

What are brain structures that schedule rhythmic variations in bodily functions by triggering them at the appropriate times?

Biological Rhythms

In which stage of sleep do Delta Waves begin?

Stages 3 and 4 . Becoming less aware of the outside world . If woken, you are slow to respond and often not yourself for a while. You show signs of being extremely relaxed (HR, BP, etc.)

Why do we sleep?

Repair and restore the body and the brain

What are are the brains attempt to make sense of the random patterns of neural activity during sleep. These patterns may be meaningful, or a consequence of the environment (we don't know).

Dreams

Name the 3 Dyssomnias

Insomnia, hypersomnia and narcolepsy

Name the 3 Parasomnias

Nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking

Which class of drugs slow the ongoing activity of the CNS?

Depressants (alcohol, barbituates, tranquilizers)

Which class of drugs increase CNS activity, enhancing neural transmission?

Stimulants (Caffeine, Nicotine, Amphetamines, Cocaine, Ecstasy)

Which class of drugs increase effectiveness of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. Often this occurs for a short time period and then the user "crashes"?

Stimulants

Which class of drugs reduce anxiety, lower sensitivity to pain, and elevate mood and often depress nervous system activity?

Opiates (narcotics) Opium, heroin, and morphine

Which class of drugs mimic endorphins?

Opiates

Which class of drugs disrupt normal mental and emotional functioning, including distorting perception and altering reality?

Hallucinogens --LSD, Marijuana, Mescaline and Psilocybin

Which class of drugs act on Serotonin-based receptor sites in the brain

Hallucinogens

In which class of drugs is the high long-lasting, but may not be all one type of high (can be great or awful, and this can switch during any one experience). Sensations may blend. Flash-backs occur.

Hallucinogens

True or False? Rods and cones are located within the retina.

True

Which stage of sleep is the deepest?

Stage 4

EEG helps study what?

sleep

What is the retention of information over time the processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval?

Memory

Which theory is the view that memory storage involves three separate systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory?

Atkinson-Shiffrin theory

What is the decay theory?

Theory stating that when something new is learned, a neurochemical memory trace is formed, but over time this trace tends to disintegrate.

What is also known as working memory?

Short term memory

We can increase our STM by doing what which rearranges incoming info into meaningful or familiar patterns?.

Chunking

What is the process by which information gets into memory storage?

Encoding

What is the memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall more accurately and vividly than everyday events?

flashbulb memory

What is a limited-capacity memory system in which information is retained for only as long as 30 seconds unless strategies are used to retain it longer?

Short term memory

In terms of memory encoding, focusing on more than one thing simultaneously is called _______________

Divided Attention

Auditory sensory memory is called __________ memory.

Echoic

Within working memory, the ________________ integrates information from the phonological loop, the visuospatial scratch pad, and long-term memory.

central executive

The ________________ phenomenon refers to the experience of a person being confident that he or she knows something, but not being able to retrieve the information from memory.

Tip of the tongue

It is usually easier to remember things that come at the beginning of a list than to remember those that come in the middle of a list. This is called the _________ effect

primacy

Vividly remembering the specifics of an important event (such as the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks or the assassination of President Kennedy) is called a(n)._________________

flashbulb memory

Cailean has always wished she had a "photographic memory." She sits on the steps of one of the academic buildings and watches the people. Sometimes she closes her eyes and tries to recall everything about what she was seeing. Each time, though, the memory quickly seems to dissolve. In what kind of memory is the visual information stored while it lasts?
A) Iconic
B) Echoic
C) Code
D) Display

D) Display

Jen's dad sends her to the grocery store for a few last-minute dinner items. Jen repeats the list of ten items as she walks to the store, but can only remember the first and last three items when she gets there--she is unable to remember the four in the middle. This U-shaped pattern of recall is
A) called working memory overload.
B) the key indicator of attention deficit disorder.
C) called the serial position effect.
D) common only in women.

C) called the serial position effect.

Leslie is taking a class on effective study techniques. Much of the course focuses on memory aids that will help her reorganize information into more meaningful units and provide extra cues to help her retrieve the information from long-term memory. These aids are called
A) semantic aids.
B) structural devices.
C) loci.
D) mnemonic devices.

D) mnemonic devices.

What is the proposal that memories are forgotten or lost spontaneously with the passage of time?

Decay

What is a defense mechanism that individuals use unknowingly, to push threatening thoughts, memories, and feelings out of conscious awareness.?

Repression

Which part of the barin may help form and store new memories?

The hippocampus

Which part of the brain stores emotional memory?

Amygdala

Which type of memoryoccurs in the absence of conscious awareness or willful intent such as when you speak, walk, etc.

implicit memory

What is Explicit Memory?

"Conscious, willful remembering."

What is the Method of Loci?

When you choose some (familiar) pathway, and then form mental images of the to-be-remembered items sitting in locations along the pathway

Which type of memory is knowledge about the world, stored as facts that make little or no reference to one's personal experience such as Trivia Questions?

Semantic memory

Which type of memory is knowledge about how to do things such as riding a bike?

Procedural memory

Memory is better when encoding happens at which level of processing?
A) shallow level
B) intermediate level
C) deepest level
D) elaboration level

C) deepest level

The Atkinson-Shiffrin theory of memory includes
A) attention, processing, and elaboration.
B) sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
C) the phonological loop, visuospatial working memory, and the central executive.
D) episodic memory, semantic memory, and implicit memory.

B) sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Most people can keep _____ items in their short-term memory.
A) 5 ± 2
B) 7
C) 8
D) 7 ± 2

D) 7 ± 2

What type of information is stored in the phonological loop?
A) visual information
B) auditory information
C) speech-based information
D) spatial information

C) speech-based information

Your memory of Civil War history is an example of what type of memory?
A) working memory
B) episodic memory
C) semantic memory
D) short-term memory

C) semantic memory

When two neurons are activated at the same time, the connection between them will increase; this is called
A) parallel distributed processing.
B) semantic networking.
C) long-term potentiation.
D) the serial position effect.

C) long-term potentiation.`

The primacy effect is thought to occur because
A) items stay in working memory longer.
B) items were presented more recently.
C) of long-term potentiation.
D) items are less rehearsed.

A) items stay in working memory longer.

Remembering is better when a person's mood at encoding is similar to their mood at retrieval. This is an example of
A) context-dependent memory.
B) state-dependent memory.
C) the primacy effect.
D) the recency effect.

B) state-dependent memory.

Problems remembering something may be the result of not storing the information in memory in the first place; this phenomenon is called
A) retrieval failure.
B) encoding failure.
C) interference.
D) transience.

B) encoding failure.

A person who cannot create new memories
A) has retrograde amnesia.
B) has anterograde amnesia.
C) has problems with explicit memory.
D) has problems with implicit memory.

B) has anterograde amnesia.

_____ refers to a person's memories about himself or herself, whereas _____ refers to a person's memories about the world.
A) Working memory, short-term memory
B) Explicit memory, implicit memory
C) Encoding, retention
D) Episodic memory, semantic memory

D) Episodic memory, semantic memory

A student's class always met in room 100. However, when that student took the final exam, the class met in room 317. The student experienced memory problems at the final exam. What could account for the student's memory problems?
A) context-dependent memory
B) state-dependent memory
C) priming
D) motivated forgetting

A) context-dependent memory

How are a schema and a script different?
A) A schema focuses on episodic memory, whereas a script focuses on semantic memory.
B) A script is a specific type of schema that focuses on events, whereas other types of schemas focus on a variety of experiences.
C) A script is more accurate than a schema.
D) A schema is related to encoding, whereas a script is related to retrieval.

B) A script is a specific type of schema that focuses on events, whereas other types of schemas focus on a variety of experiences.

What is the theory that states people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember?

interference theory

What is proactive interference?

Situation in which material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later.

What is retroactive interference?

Situation in which material learned later disrupts the retrieval of information learned earlier.

What is the retention of information over time and the representation of information in memory?

Storage

What type of information does the phonological loop store?

acoustic and verbal info

What does the Visuospatial sketchpad store?

visual and spatial info

Mental categories that are used to group and evaluate objects or events are called ________________

Concepts

What are cognitive shortcuts, or rules-of-thumb, that help to solve a problem?

Heuristics

Failing to realize that a knife can be used as a flat-head screwdriver is an example of _____________

functional fixedness

The average IQ score is ________

100

What refers to young children's utterances of two-word statements that convey meaning?

Telegraphic speech

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