← POL 352 test 1 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All fuzzy distinction between empirical and normative Normative positions affect empirical ones; also goes the other way (idea that better ultrasound technology would help the pro-life movement) Are there ethics in Hobbes' state of nature? What predominates? no; force and fraud Is there room for industry or agriculture in Hobbes' state of nature? no; people will just steal your work Hobbes quote on state of nature "The lot of man is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." Why does Hobbes say rational people will want a sovereign? they realize they disagree on what's ethical and have to have one to settle disputes or enforce agreements What are the 'ultimate sanctions' that a sovereign can use? take away life, liberty, property Why does the sovereign have those ultimate sanctions? - tell us what's ethical - bring order to society - protect us from ourselves and each other 3 questions that drive political philosophy 1. is there a God? if so, what's He like? 2. are there ethical absolutes? 3. what are humans like? In the context of worldview questions, why does Hobbes say the sovereign needs so much power? humans are inherently bad, and there are no ethical absolutes traditional purposes of government 1. protect us from ourselves and each other 2. protect us from outsiders 3. provide goods and services that individuals and/or the market cannot efficiently provide broad categories of goods and services that individuals/the market cannot efficiently provide 1. roads, currency, postal service, public utilities... education? healthcare? 2. compensation, reparation - protect consumers from the market 3. things like pollution control that don't make sense in the short run; gov has to decide it matters and make it happen three problems the sovereign may run into 1. we don't all agree on the goals 2. even if we agree on the goals, we might disagree on what they mean and how ethically to accomplish them 3. how do we prioritize them? Why shouldn't we surprised that politics is bound up in conflict? Genesis 3 definition of politics the authoritative resolution of conflicts through the allocation of values and resources What does resolution of conflict not mean? that everyone's always happy that the issue will never come up again that the ethically or technically correct solution has been achieved resolution of conflict (what it does mean) 1. a decision has been made 2. the decision binds everyone (although he may choose to exempt someone) 3. sovereign has the right to take away life, liberty, property if that's what it takes to enforce these decisions allocation of values 1. The sovereign's decisions are value judgments. 2. Many decisions are trying to influence our values. government the set of roles and offices that are established in a society to make authoritative decisions offices in the def of gov the sovereign gets to make these decisions because he's in the position, not because of who he is What are the implications of power resting in an office rather than a person? power must be limited; talk about what can/cannot be done roles in the def of gov expected or accepted patterns of behavior enforced informally by how people respond (e.g. political parties) What does it usually mean when people say we should keep religion out of politics? Keep your religion out of politics, but mine's good! Richard Kirk on inseparability of religion and politics everything in a culture flows from a common religion (at least at first) Rushdooney on inseparability of religion and politics "If you want to know what a nation's gods are, look at its laws." What argument does Reichley pick up on? Religion and politics are inexorably intertwined because they rest on a common cultural base. Reichley's 7 moral principles that motivate individuals and social groups 1. monism 2. idealism 3. personalism 4. theist-humanism 5. egoism 6. authoritarianism 7. civil-humanism monism spiritual reality is the only good idealism through lens of group, figuring out transcendent ethics personalism transcendence through individual experience theist-humanism transcendent significance in related experiences of individuals and the group ways of separating Reichley's isms belief in transcendence; individuals vs. groups What does Reichley think is necessary for building stable societies? some kind of belief in transcendence two dimensions of the religion/politics conversation 1. degree of institutional separation 2. church role in public policy formation separationists strict institutional separation, small role in policy formation (e.g. conservative Protestant churches) social activists strict institutional separation, large role in policy formation (e.g. Catholic church) accommodationists moderate institutional separation, moderate role in policy formation (religious presence without specific stances) interventionists modederate institutional separation, large role in policy formation (e.g. Jesse Jackson, Mike Huckabee) Why did theologically conservative Protestant churches change from being interventionist in the 18th and 19th centuries to being separationist now? changing immigration patters mean other views have to be involved now; Blaine amendments at state level refuse gov $ for any church/religious thing; tax-deductible status if we stay out of politics; eschatology? premillenialism Rev. basically chronology; Christ will come back and reign; His kingdom is in the future postmillenialism Rev. series of cycles; Christ's kingship began at Resurrection, and that will increasingly be recognized by nations amillenialism Christ is King now too, but focus more on the Church relationship of eschatology to church involvement in politics most churches that used to be postmil or a-mil are now premil Three reasons, according to Dawson, that the West develops differently because of the influence of Christianity 1. capacity for change 2. moral underpinnings 3. truth found in Scripture: need for education why don't we notice the difference Christianity has made on the West? division of disciplines and specialization What are the normative implications of Dawson's empirical argument? If Christianity is declining and so is our society, maybe changing one will change the others What does Huntingdon argue in The Clash of Civilizations? there are 7 different civilizations in the world with basic beliefs fundamentally opposed to each other, so conflict inevitable Where does Berman locate the origins of the Anglo-American legal system? Germanic law and Christianity What does Berman say the Germanic tribes gave our legal system? language, structure, relational things What does Berman say Christianity gave our legal system? morality, transcendent ideas of ethics and justice civil religion (Wallis) the tendency to identify key religious ideas in terms of what *is* our culture, economics, history What does civil religion amount to, according to Wallis? idolatry: looking to the state for salvation; manipulation: you make people think the state coheres with your religion because it gives some lip service to it ideology more or constrained (fairly consistent) set of views about politics and economics 6 tenets of classical liberalism 1. humans primarily individuals 2. private property 3. contracts, rule of law (to organize society) 4. freedom and liberty 5. equality 6. democracy Today's debates between liberals and conservatives in the context of classical liberalism? really just a debate over the meaning and importance of the tenets of classical liberalism What are some big ideas from Adam Smith? division of labor; trade happens naturally (gov role small); "invisible hand" of the market will lead us to the optimal distribution of goods and most efficient use of resources (doesn't mean no ethics) What role of government does Smith call into question? providing goods and services the market can't According to Smith, what happens if the sovereign gets involves? if free division of labor is optimal, you're going to be worse off; as gov gets more powerful, wastes $ What's the overarching reason for Smith that government should stay out of the market? if humans aren't inherently good, better if allocation decisions are made voluntarily (if the sovereign tells us what to do, we have to assume he's smarter and more upright than we are) What are a lot of people like Spencer responding to in the 19th century? series of dislocations, economically and philosophically According to Spencer's social darwinism, what is the kindest thing we can say? "Adapt or die." According to Spencer, what happens when government gets involved? makes things worse; reduces incentives Why do some economists argue that we have historically high teenage unemployment rates, esp. in cities? minimum wage laws - McD's would pay teens $2.50, but not going to hire more people at $6 or $8 What do conservatives highlight about the state of man pre-Fall? (Gen 2) God commands Adam to work What are some laws from the OT about private property that give Scriptural support for modern conservatives? 8th commandment - don't steal don't move boundary stones inheritance laws Jubilee laws - property and slaves revert to original owners Why do modern conservatives look at the gleaning laws in the OT (Lev 19, Deut 24)? They had to leave it for you, but you had to go *get* it. No evidence of gov being involved - no 'gleaning police.' Poor get cared for by voluntary contributions from family and neighbors. What do modern conservatives see in 1 Sam 8:10-18? In God's warnings about what the strong sovereign will do to the people, we hear that he'll suck productive resources, that gov destroys incentives What do modern conservatives say about the parable of the laborers in the vineyard (Matt 20)? Private property, contracts - isn't it lawful for me to do what I want with my own things? 2 Thess 3:10 if anyone will not work, neither shall he eat (modern conservative support) Monsma's two major critiques of modern conservatism - gov not the only threat to freedom - "holding action" - defensive agenda, not proactive maybe conservatives are just liberals 25 years later (DADT) What's the difference between Green and Smith's definitions of freedom? Smith - freedom from Green - freedom to Where do Green and Smith locate private property? Smith - individual effort Green - organization in society How does Green see human nature? Not inherently good, but improvable - by state's education. Until a better condition is reached, it's the state's job to provide children with the freedom to be all they can be. H. Clinton and R. Santorum on the differences between Smith's and Green's perspectives? Clinton - "It takes a village [i.e. gov] to raise a child." Santorum - "It takes a family to raise a child." What does Galbraith think about Smith? 1) If Smith ever worked, he doesn't now; power makes things too uneven. 2) If Smith were right, we would've bargained our way out of the Great Depression? What is Galbraith's solution to the problem of power imbalances? gov must be and/or foster countervailing power examples of countervailing power min. wage laws, compulsory education, etc; anti-trust laws, protection (or encouragement!) of unions Galbraith comes out of the thought of which British political philosopher? Keynes: demand-side economics What happens to the Regan Bobblehead Co. when demand decreases? fire people; fired people can't buy dolls, so demand decreases again; cycle continues How should gov get involved to stimulate demand, according to Keynes? cut taxes, increase spending; stimulate economy What is inflation and what should gov do about it, according to Keynes? too much $ chasing too few goods; raise taxes (so we have less $ to spend) and cut spending three problems with inflation 1. can you plan for how to save? kids' college, retirement? 2. does bad things to our ability to trade with other countries 3. what do you do with people with fixed incomes? In Keynsian economics, what drives the economy? consumer demand How does fiscal policy work as a tool? gov tries to stabilize (not control) demand through tax and spending policy How does monetary policy work as a tool? trying to stabilize demand through how much $ is available Do conservatives prefer fiscal or monetary policy? Monetary, if they have to pick one; but neither is better How does the FED's reserve rate help stimulate demand? FED regulates that banks have to keep a certain % of customers' $ on hand; if there's not enough demand, lower the reserve rate (too much? raise it) How does the FED's interest rate help stimulate demand? If we're in a depression, FED lowers interest rate for other banks (that in turn lend to other banks), which makes it a good time to buy a house, car, etc What is quantitative expansion and how is it supposed to stimulate demand? FED is buying gov debt to try to create more $ What are three basic philosophies of how we tax? 1. flat taxes 2. regressive taxes 3. progressive taxes flat tax everyone makes the same %; many local and state taxes regressive tax the more income you have, the lower the % of it you pay; per capita tax ('local service' tax), maybe social security progressive tax the more you make, the greater % of income you pay in taxes; federal income taxes, also some states How does the progressive tax work? add each successive bracket to the last (you only pay the top % on the amt of income that's beyond all the other brackets) effective rate % of your income you're actually paying in a progressive tax marginal rate % of your income you pay on your last dollar in a progressive tax (everything in econ. is about 'marginal' - what will you do with your next dollar?) How can we get enough $ to do what Green and Galbraith want to do? tax the rich (they can afford it) What does inflation do to heavily taxing the rich? as salaries go up (tho not worth more!), people are automatically pushed into higher tax brackets How can the tax code encourage certain behaviors? deductions come off of highest bracket - could drop a whole bracket (e.g. tax codes for energy-efficient windows) What % of taxes to the 50% of Americans making more $ pay? The top 5%? over 90%; over 50% What are the questions of equity and justice concerning taxes? we're all equal, so we pay the same amt or %? to whom much is given, much is expected? What are the implications of Keynsian economics for taxing? if consumer demand drives the economy, we should target tax cuts (to the poor and middle class) What drives the economy, according to conservatives? people's willingness to invest and produce tax code's effect on public policy (e.g. marriage issues, energy efficiency) what policy should be is something we need to think about, but whether the tax code is where we should do it is another question What's the theoretically impossible lose-lose situation of Keynsian economics and when did it happen? inflation is high and so is unemployment; 70's How do conservatives and liberals explain the failure of the Keynes model? conservatives - the model itself liberals - the application of the model (it's not an electable strategy to say we're raising taxes!) Liberals say that Keynes was the only reason the economy survived the 70's at all, in view of... - baby boomers hit the job market - social changes leading women into the job market - OPEC (oil and petroleum exports) starts driving up prices, everything goes up Laffer curve and taxes the government can raise taxes and revenue actually decreases, because people are less likely to work What's the conservative argument about lower taxes (and its counterargument)? if we cut taxes, the economy will boom (Reagan); spending doesn't decrease, so we run up a big deficit What are the differences between the targets of liberal and conservative tax cuts? lib - cut taxes for poor and middle class cons - cut for rich - they're the ones spending! Laffer curve and marginal taxes the question isn't whether you'll work, but whether you'll work overtime, make that next investment, etc. What happens when gov policies interfere with people's desire to produce, according to supply side economics? high unemployment (people don't want to work) and high inflation (fewer people to make bobbleheads, so fewer dolls, so price goes up) Can you use some of each with demand and supply side economics? probably not. Lib/cons positions on capital gains taxes (what you make on an investment you've held for a long time) lib - tax these a lot! the filthy rich get them; aren't they unearned income? cons - don't tax! incentive not to invest; it's redistribution of income that's already been taxed Lib/cons positions on why the housing market isn't doing well lib - consumers aren't building houses cons - investors aren't convinced it's worth it What is the clearest divide between R's and D's, or conserv's and lib's? economics Biblical support for modern liberalism Jubilee - land reverted to its family, debts cancelled gleaning laws - we're all responsible for the poor Deut 14 - gov had to be involved (argument) Ps 82:1-4 active verbs! (caring for the needy and oppressed) 5 implications of humans being made in the image of God 1. rational 2. sub-creators 3. stewards - care for 4. righteous 5. social/relational - reflects the Godhead What are the problems with these implications of being made in the image of God? we aren't sure *how* to be stewards, *how* to be rational; we are no longer righteous What do Christians debate about the role of gov? Is it meant to suppress evil, or be proactive? Would there have still been civil government if there hadn't been a fall? Is it just a response to sin or is there a more positive role that would've made it a part of the pre-Fall world? Gov and politics in OT: what do we see by the end of Genesis? What's the question about how Israel worked? civil government (Pharaoh in Egypt, elders in Israel); is this to tell us what happened or how it's supposed to happen? Difference between lex rex and rex lex lex rex - law is king rex lex - king is law (king can't just do whatever he wants!) How does God respond to the problems about being made in his image? (4 ways) 1. Christ the mediator 2. Scripture 3. Holy Spirit 4. series of institutions Christ the mediator mediatorial kingship of Christ - God gives Christ a special kingship because of His work as mediator - huge implications for gov and politics Scripture and political implications can't suppress the truth or say we didn't know. is it wrong to say we should base ethics on our feelings or even mutual agreements? Holy Spirit help in renewing us into the image of Christ institutions bring order to society in the face of the chaos and evil resulting from the fall, and do what we can't do ourselves (we have parents so siblings don't punish siblings) Rom 12 what it means to be transformed, examples Rom 15:17-21 if we're being transformed we don't repay evil for evil, don't take vengeance Rom 13 and vengeance we're not to take vengeance, so civil gov does! What happens in Ex 18? Moses can't handle disputes in Israel alone; Jethro proposes delegation of gov: tiered judicial system (Federalism based on this - divide power so no one person has too much) Characteristics of leaders in Ex 18 upright, hate a bribe, trustworthy, know the laws What's really at issue in the characteristics of the king in Deut 17? character; what motivates them (what we're told we're not supposed to look into in politics!); king is to write a copy Ex 18 and teaching the law Moses is to teach the people the decrees and the laws; if they understand the law, maybe fewer disputes, or can be solved on own. gov is to teach morality (for today?) monsma's 3 concerns with liberalism 1. underestimates what it will take to solve problems 2. blurs charity and justice 3. thinks that gov is more ethical than the rest of us and that it knows what we need, how to take care of us Why, in the light of Gen 1, are we more comfortable with sharing power than, say, hierarchical Islamic nations? God is 3 in 1 implications of the fact we live in a created world, for ethics God has the right to say that He knows best how things work and has the right to say He knows how things should work. Col 1:15-17 Jesus' creative power, ruling right, and divinity; all things created by and for Him.