C-reactive protein (opsonin)
serum globulin, binds to surface of bacteria and facilitates phagocytosis. produced in the liver.
prostaglandins and leukotrienes
fatty acids, enhance inflammatory response by increasing permeability, chemotaxis of neutrophils towards wound and stimulates pain endings.
Stimulate vascular dilation and permeability during inflammatory reactions.
natural killer cells
directly kills virus-infected cells and tumor cells
gram positive cells are killed by
gram negative cells are killed by
B lymphocytes --> (in response to specific antigens) form B cells --> produce antibodies.
T lymphocytes --> form T cells (kills by direct contact)
antigen must be a ...
antigen too small to generate a immune response
large enough to generate an immune response
areas on immonogen which antigen are; haptens attached to a macromolecule
specificities of antibodies
cleaves antibody to form 2 Fab and 1 Fc fragment
cleaves antibody to form 1 Fab fragment
main, classic immunoglobulin, only one that can cross the placenta! the smallest
main antibody in secretions and plays a significant role in first-line defense at the mucosal level
main antibody in the initial "primary" immune response and allows good complement activation in view of the large size, consisting of IgG-like subunits
found in allergy and worm infection. Its Fc region binds to eosinophils, basophils and mast cells
antigen receptor on B lymphocytes
what can help in antibody variation?
shuffling V, D, J segments; 5 different types of antibodies; mutations
5-10 days; IgM inital fighter, then IgG comes along but is less pronounced
1-3 days; IgG is main fighter, responds quicker and IgM comes along but is less pronounced
Tc and Ts, MHC I, two chain
Th, MHC II, single chain
MHC class 1 molecules are found
on all nucleated cells; classified as HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C; associated with Beta-2 microglobulin; accomodate a peptide of 8-9 amino acids
MHC class II are found on
dendritic cells, macrophages, b cells, thymic epithelial cells and some activated T cells; are alpha-beta heterodimers; accommodate peptides of 18-20 amino acids or more
only about _______ of all immature t-cells survive to become mature t- cells
only DP (double positive) carries CD4 and CD8, not _________________
DN (double negative)
produce Rag-1 and Rag-2., eavy chain is synthesized.
Early-stage pre-B cells
synthesize surrogate non-κ, non-λ light chain.
Late-stage pre-B cells
synthesize κ or λ light chains that replace the surrogate light chain and expresses true IgM monomers.
Mature B cells
cells coexpress IgM and IgD cell surface monomers
differentiated mature B cells
helper T cells only help B cells
False; they help both B cells and cytotoxic T cells
Tumor Necrosis Factors (TNF)
Stimulate acute inflammation
Stimulate wound healing
defects in B cells
the pt will be more susceptible to pyogenic bacterial infections
defects in T cells
defective responses to viruses and intracelllular bacteria, fungi and protozoa. can also result in defects in humoral immunity.
no T or B cells
Host T cells kill cells in graft with foreign MHC I and II
bone marrow transplant
mature T cells in graft kill cells in host with foreign MHC I and II
block T cell activity
cyclosporine A and monoclonal antibodies
hypersensitivity reaction: type I
immediate (hay fever, anaphylaxis)
hypersensitivity reaction: type II
hypersensitivity reaction: type III
immune complex (rheumatoid arthritis, serum sickness)
hypersensitivity reaction: type IV
cell-mediated, cytotoxic (contact dermatitis, graft rejection)