Chapter 13: Endocrine System

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what occurs when a hormone reaches their target cells?

the hormone binds to an appropriate receptor on the target cell.

what are the 2 main targets of the antidiuretic hormone? (ADH)

the kidneys & blood vessels

In general, sensory input to a portion of the neuroendocrine system causes...

releases hormones

Hormone molecules are typically transported to the target cells by...

the bloodstream

Antidiuretic hormone (known as ADH or vasopressin)...

increases water rentetion

The posterior pituitary produces both inhibiting and releasing hormones.

FALSE

The pituitary gland is located in the...

Hypophyseal fossa

The hypothalamus is sometimes referred to as the "master control center" of the endocrine system because it...

Regulates most endocrine functions of the body

The pancreas serves both endocrine and exocrine functions.

TRUE

The pancreas is located..

between the duodenum and spleen, just inferior to the stomach

The endocrine portion of the pancreas produces...

insulin & glucagon

The pancreatic acinar cells secrete...

enzyme rich pancretic juice

Which pancreatic islet cell type is correctly matched with its product?

beta cells : insulin

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by

a disorder of the immune system

The pancreas functions as part of the endocrine system and as a part of the ______ system.

Digestive system

The hormone that the pineal gland secretes is

melatonin

The thymus gland secretes hormones called _____ that _______.

thymosins; control production and differentiation of white blood cells

* the _______ senses high osmolarity in the plasma

kidney

*_____ Neurons bring the information of high osmolarity to the hypothalamus

Sensory

*The supraoptic nerves of the ______ fires impulses in response to the high osmolarity.

hypothalmus

*the impulses from the hypothalmus travel through the ______ in the hypothalamo-hypophseal tract.

infundibulum

*exocytosis of ADH from synaptic endings in the ______ pituitary.

posterior

Hormones that the posterior pituitary secretes are synthesized in the

hypothalamus

-- the _______ stretches.

cervix

-- ____ neurons bring the information of stretch to the hypothalmus.

sensory

-- the paraventricular nucleus of the ______ fires impulses in response to the stretch.

hypothalmus

-- the impulses from the hypothalmus travel through the _______ in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract.

infundibulum

-- exocytosis of oxytocin from synaptic endings in the ______ pituitary

posterior

President John F. Kennedy had

addisons disease

A steroid hormone acts on a target cell by

directly causing protein sysnthesis

Graves disease, the most common form of hyperthyroidism, is caused by

an autoimmune system disease

Exocrine glands differ from endocrine glands in that exocrine glands

secrete through ducts or tubes to the body's exterior.

ADH and oxytocin are secreted by

neurosecretory cells

The specificity of hormone action derives from

target cell receptors that are unique for the hormone

endocrine means..

internal secretion.

A sweat gland is an example of a(n) _______ gland.

exocrine

Growth hormone signals the release of

IGF-1

A hormone is a ______ and the target cell is __________.

molecule that has a metabolic effect on another cell; a cell that has receptors for specific hormones

__________ controls hormone concentrations.

negative feedback

Oxytocin is administered to women following childbirth to stimulate

uterine contractions

all hormones are

organic compounds

Type 2 diabetes mellitus results from

insensitivity of cells to insulin

The pineal gland is located

attatched to the thalamus

A hormone has a half-life of 20 minutes. After an hour, ___ percent of the original number of molecules remains.

12.5

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