The______ migrated into Italy around 800 B.C.
-The _____ settled along the Tiber River in small villages scattered over seven low-lying hills.
-The _____ built the original settlement at Rome - atop Palatine Hill. These settlers were considered to be the first Romans.
-The Romans also shared the Italian peninsula with: Greek colonists and the Etruscans
-The early Romans were impressed by the advanced culture of the ____ migrants who had settled in southern Italy and in Sicily between 750 and 600 B.C.E.
-Overcrowding at home had caused these ____colonists to leave their homes in Corinth, Thebes, and other _____cities and settle in foreign places.
The _____, already highly civilized, came into Italy about 750 B.C. They established a series of small city-states in the northern and central areas of the peninsula, ruling over the native Italic people by virtue of their superior weaponry, architecture (use of the arch) and organization.
-______kings ruled over Rome from about 750 to about 509 B.C.E.
was a young and ambitious Carthaginian general whose military genius has been rated as equal to that of Alexander the Great!
-_______forced Rome to declare war in 219 B.C. by attacking a Roman ally - the city of Sagento in Spain.
-_______strategy: He didn't want a head-on attack with the Romans. ______wanted to surprise the Romans ... engaged in a long trek from Spain across France and through the Alps.
-With 9,000 cavalry, 60 African war elephants, and about 45,000/50,000 infantrymen, _______crossed through southern Gaul and over the Alps into Italy.
-The difficult journey cost ______about half of his men, much of his equipment, and all but one elephant.
-For more than a decade, he marched his forces up and down the Italian peninsula at will!
-This brilliant Carthaginian general won battle after battle against the desperate Romans.
one of the Gracchi who believed that the basis of Rome's problems was the decline of the small farmer. -To remedy this problem, they urged the council of the plebs to pass land-reform bills that called for the government to take back public land held by large landowners and give it to landless Romans.
-Most of the senators, themselves large landowners whose estates included large areas of public land, were furious.
-A group of senators took the law into their own hands ... killed ______in 133 B. C.
Another one of the Gracchi who advocated for help of the farmers of Rome. He later suffered the same fate as his brother
One of the men in the first triumvirate along with Julius Caesar and Pompey, ______was given a command in Syria and then was later killed in battle. He was originally a ruler along with Pompey.
One of the men in the first triumvirate, ____ was given command of Spain. When Caesar left the country and Crassus was killed, Rome thought that rule by ____would be more beneficial, so they asked Caeser to not return. In doing so, he started a civil war between Pompey and himself. When Caesar won, he had to lay down his forces.
The defeat of Pompey's forces left Caesar in complete control of the Roman government.
-Caesar became a dictator in 45 B. C.
-Reforms of Caesar:
a. granted Roman citizenship to many people in the provinces
b. increased the Senate to 900 members
c. filling it with many of his supporters/friends ... by increasing the number of members, he weakened the power of the Senate.
d. gave land to the poor
e. helped the poor by giving them jobs (public works)
-Leading senators considered him to be too dangerous ... MARCUS BRUTUS and GAIUS CASSIUS
-Caesar was assassinated in 44 B. C.
Belonging to the second triumvirate, _____was a powerful politician who was later forced to retire by Octavian.
Also a member of the second triumvirate, ____ was an experienced general who became rivals with Octavian after Lepidus retired. After meeting Cleopatra, he fell in love with her and followed her to Egypt where he was hunted down by Octavian and then took his own life.
-Octavian became the first Roman emperor. He was a popular emperor.
-The Senate awarded him various titles: Augustus (the revered one) and imperator (commander in chief)
**splendid public buildings
**set up a civil service (paid workers to manage the affairs of government - grain supply, tax collection and the postal system)
Queen of Egypt at the time, this lady fell in love with Mark Antony and together committed suicide while under attack of Octavian's forces.
Octavian took this title after announcing himself as the emperor of Rome.
Famous historian who wrote Parallel Lives
one of ancient Rome's most famous and greatest public speakers. He was such a great speaker that some say Mark Antony and Octavian grew jealous, and that Octavian had him put to death.
A general under Octavian, he was the leader in charge of the Battle of Actium of which he won.
he was the writer of the most famous work of Latin Literature, the Aeneid, the epic of the legendary Aeneas.
____wrote History of Rome. He tried to depict the past greatness of Rome in glowing terms.
-____traced the history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 B. C. (multivolume)
-____saw history in terms of moral lessons.
-____was trying to convince his readers to return to the simple ways of their ancestors.
-Basically, it's a myth of Rome rather than a true history.
-He wrote about "funny tidbits" (human weaknesses) of the Romans.
-In Satires, Horace attacks job dissatisfaction and human greed.
when Hannibal was only a boy of nine, his father, _____, a general in Carthage's army, made him swear that he would always hate Rome and seek to destroy it.
people who worked for other people and who were owned by other people and did not receive payment in compensation for their labor.
A Jew that grew up in Nazareth and sacrificed his life for others in order to save their sins. He preached the virtues of Christianity that highly conflicted with the religious views of Rome, and was therefore persecuted by Pontius Pilot and sentenced to death.
the "rock" on which Jesus built his church.
Was originally a Jew who persecuted Christians, but after having a vision on the way to Damascus, he became a Christian that traveled the world preaching about
*a benevolent Savior
*the promise of eternal blessing
*a strong moral and social code
*an organized community of believers
Huns and Attilas
The Huns, who were indirectly for the Germanic assault on the empire, became a direct threat against the Romans. In 444 they united under a powerful chieftan named _____. They attacked both the East and West parts of the Roman empire, but after Attila's death became less of a threat and only performed minor invasions.
Believed to be Hannibal's match in military cunning, Scipio took control of Carthage and forced Hannibal back to Carthage to defend it. This is the beginning of the end of Hannibal.
means "the Father of his country;" the title Cicero (and later Augustus) was given by the Senate.
In 107 B.C., a Roman general named _____became consul and began to recruit his armies in a new way. (For a long time, the Roman army had been made up of small farmers who were landholders.)
-Now, ______recruited volunteers from the urban and rural poor who owned no property. To recruit them, he promised them land.
-These volunteers swore an oath of loyalty to the general, not to the Roman state.
-As a result, ______created a new type of army that was not under government control.
-Also, generals were forced to become involved in politics in order to get laws passed that would provide the land they needed for their veterans.
-______left a powerful legacy. Again, he created a new system of military recruitment that placed much power in the hands of the individual generals.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
-___________ was the next general to take advantage of the new military system.
-The Senate had given him command of a war in Asia Minor. The council of the plebs tried to transfer command to Marius, and a civil war broke out.
-_____won and seized Rome!
-_____conducted a reign of terror to wipe out all opposition.
-Thankfully, _____later restored power to the hands of the Senate.
-_____hoped that he had created a firm foundation to restore a traditional Roman republic governed by a powerful Senate.
-His "real" legacy was entirely different from what he had intended - using an army to seize power was a viable "tool" and it was attractive to most ambitious men.
Caesar's best friend, he was the main conspirator of the assassination of Caesar, also known as the Ides of March
was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, and the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus.
the high priest of Rome, the head of Roman state religion; he appointed and oversaw the vestal virgins.
an ancient line of priestesses of the goddess of the hearth, Vesta. A vestal entered service at about 6 - 10 yrs. old and served for 30 years. After age 30, a vestal was free to marry -- though few did. They oversaw a number of rituals.
another Roman historian, is notable among ancient historians because he presented the facts accurately
one of the most important fathers of the church, he became bishop of the city of Hippo. He taught that humans needed the grace of God to be saved. he further taught that people could not receive God's grace unless they belonged to the Church and received the sacraments. One of his most famous books is the City of God.