Which of the 4 gospels were written last and why?
John- d/t concern about theological implications of Jesus life & death
When did Christians begin to render time as BC or AD?
What is the best guess of Jesus's birth year?
(Because of calendar issues)
What group of Jews did Jesus parents belong to?
how many sibllings did Jesus have?
How old was Jesus when he was baptized?
What brought about the census in 6AD?
Quirinius, governor of Syria wanted to make a more thorough tax assessment to build a new temple
- Jews Insurrected
Who was Judas the Galilean?
organized Zealot party with Zaddok against taxes/building of temple
His father was killed 52 years earlier in insurrection
The largest party in Jewish Galilee were ____.
Who were the greatest teachers in the Pharisee academy in Jerusalem?
Why was John the Baptist beheaded?
he wanted the rich to share, limit taxes
Who were the 1st disciples to follow Jesus?
Simon, Andrew, James, John
Jesus's base ministry was where?
What happened at Jesus's first sabbath at synogogue at Capernaum?
Man posessed, cast out with one word "silence"
What 3 things made Jesus's teachings so compelling?
Urgent message, what to do now, parables easy to understand
What does apocalysm include?
immenent sudden end, punishment, vindication
What is eschatology?
beliefs about the end of the world
How did Jesus change the traditional Jewish view of apocolyptic hopes?
included others from around the world, not just kingdom of David
What was Jesus' favorite name for God?
How did Jesus view humans?
not inherently evil
What did Jesus teach about love that was radical?
love enemies, turn the other cheek
Which 2 groups are most often written as being opposed to Jesus's views?
What was it about Jesus's teachings that most offended the Pharisees?
interpreted the law of prophets without respecting tradition
When was the 1s time anyone referred to Jesus as the Christ?
Peter- "you are the Christ"
What is meant by "reading back" of older texts on the life of Jesus?
Post resurrection add-on stories
What is ekklesia?
church- (greek word)
What happened in the court of Gentiles in the temple in Jerusalem?
Jesus overturned tables, selling doves and exchanging money
After last meal what happened to Jesus?
Went to the garden, sword to ear, taken away, pilate
What is the earliest existing account of Jesus' appearance after his resurrection?
52 ad, Paul wrote about 500 at 1 time, James, apostles, then Paul
How many followers of Jesus left Galilee & gathered in Jerusalem?
120 for prayer and council (to go into the world and preach)
What is the book of Acts about?
Early disciples actions, preachings
What occured on Pentacost?
Flames/tongues, Holy Spirit
How did Saducees and Pharisees respond to the teachings of Peter and John after Pentacost?
arrested them & told them not to speak of Jesus
Who was Gamaliel?
grandson of Hillel, a great rabbinical teacher
What were Gamaliel's arguments at the trial of Peter & John to the Sanhedrin?
If Jesus's following is of man, it will end, leave them alone. If it is from God, you won't be able to stop it.
What 2 things protected early followers of Jesus?
Everyone doubted that it would last since Jesus was dead
They kept the old laws
What was the cause of tension between Jewish Christians and Hellenistic Christians.
Temple sacrifice vs. external acts
What conflict arose between Hellenist Christians and Palestinian Christians?
How did Christians deal with this?
apostles were losing touch with greeks, hellenistic widows not getting enough food. Christians appointed 7 greek-named Christians to take charge of food distribution & accounting
Who was Stephen, what was his position?
Libertarian Christian leader, Greek-speaking, stoned by Jewish authories
What did Herod Agrippa do to please the Jewish leaders?
Who were Judaizers? Who was a famous Judaizer?
conservatives. James, the brother of Jesus was one.
What did Judaizers believe?
Christians should follow Moses law
What is another name for Judaizers?
Who was the most significant liberal Jerusalem Christian? Why?
Peter- Holy spirit comes to all, Baptism for all Moses' law was too stressful
What was Peter's fate?
What title was given to Paul and why?
2nd founder of Christianity.
He opened to gentiles
What was Paul's early faith and education?
Stoic/cynic education- Greek mystics
What happened to Paul on the road to Damascus?
light from heaven
"why do you persecute me?"
What does Freedom in Christ mean to Paul (or freedom of the Spirit)
not under the law
How did Paul settle the conflict he experienced with Judaizers over his ideas of freedom?
said he was an apostle to gentiles. OK, Just remember the needy in Jerusalem. OK.
What 3 ways was the title "Christ" used in the apostolic age?
1. events where God made himself known
2. person at center of those events
3. community born from these events
What happened to Paul on his return to Jerusalem?
took collection for poor in Jeruselem, church was mobbed by Jews & they arrested him & he was held until his death
What did Paul do while imprisoned in Rome?
wrote his letters
Why was Paul executed?
He was troublesome
What 6 people helped spread Crhistianity before Paul?
Barnabas, Simeon, Lucius, Manaen, Apollos, & others
Where did Christianity have early success and why?
Synagogues in commercial centers
Christians could make best appeal where Judaism is already known
Why did Romans become alarmed by Christians in the middle of 2nd century?
Romans don't like mystery, Christians were not OF the world, not patriotic towards Caesar
When did the 1st public executions of Christians take place and by whom?
Nero in 64 ad
What were 2 main services of worship practiced by early Christians?
Meetings modeled by synagogues
Agape "love feast" for believers only (Greeks called it Eucharist/giving of thanks)
How did love feast/Agape change as Christianity grew?
Moved to Sundays
What events triggered writing and gathering in the Christian community?
Jesus didn't come back yet, 2nd generation Christians wanted a written account before they all died
What were the earliest Christian writings?
What is the earliest of the 4 gospels and when was it written?
Mark, 65-7 ad
How is Logos used in John's gospel?
word or reason, purpose for Jesus
What does Mark focus on in Jesus's life?
birth, youth, baptism, ministry, feelings
What does Matthew & Luke focus on in Jesus's life?
basis of incarnation, Mary, messiahship, fullfulment of prophecy
Advocation of Christ as heaven-descended, revealer of true nature of God, giver of new life.
What does John focus on in Jesus's life?
Son of God, Logos, pre-existence, accounts for his knowledge of God
What were apologia?
defenses of Christianity to Roman emperors & others of high rank
Who were 4 early apologists? Who was the best known?
Aristicles, Melito, Mincius Felix, Justin the Martyr
(Justin was best known because he was a martyr)
What does "Catholic" mean?
universal nature of Christian church
What 2 contributions were made by ancient Catholic church?
system of doctrine
What are 2 major schools of though that were later called heretical?
What is Gnosticism?
Spirit world vs. matter (materialism)
They believe Sophia (a fallen aeon like Satan) wrote Genesis & said the world is infected with evil, anything natural is evil
What is Docetism?
Rejection of Jesus as human
Name 5 beliefs of Gnostics that the early Christians could not accept.
God is not in control of universe
Yaweh of OT is inferior being, OT is useless, Jesus was not born, suffer & die, no resurrection of flesh
Who was Marcion?
early Christian teacher
What were 3 parts of Marcion's canon?
Gospel, Apostle, antithesis (his own work)
What made Marcion's scripture unique?
1st to edit & publish a new scripture
Who was Irenaeus?
1st person to propose a program for dealing with heretical opinions
sign=apostolicity- must agree with apostles since they had best knowledge
What baptism creed was dev. by the church at Rome between 150-175 AD
Apostles creed because it was sound doctrine.
Expressed faith and avoid Gnostic & Marcionite doctrines
How did Emperor Decius continue the persecution of Christians?
decree that every Roman citizen must provide documentation that they sacrificed to emperors image or put to death
How did Diocletian escalate the persecution in 303 AD?
ordered to burn churches, scriptures, torture bishops & clergy until they sacrificed
Who succeeded Diocletian?
How did Constantine come to acknowledge Christianity?
granted freedom of consciousness to Christians & saw a vision "n this sign, you shall conquer" Vowed to assist Christians
how did Constantine strengthen the Catholic church?
restored lost church property, didn't like heretics, wanted unity for Christendom, Sunday became legal holiday, built churches
What 3 patriarchs worked to clarify church doctrine during Constantine's time?
Clement, Origen, Tertullian, Cyprian (I know, there's 4)
Who was Arius and what did he believe?
A learned presbyter, asked if Christ was created, not eternal, only God was eternal= arianism
Who called a counsel to settle the matter of Arianism?
Where was the council set by Constantine?
Nicea (325 AD)
Creed of Nicea was like a revised apostles creed
Who's writings helped win over the Nicean council?
What was the view of Jesus in the west?
Jesus was divine & human
What was the view of Jesus in the east?
Jesus was only a man, Nestorius was chief spokesperson
What was the view of Jesus in Cyril Alexandria?
Jesus adopted man's qualities but was divine
What did the conflict in Alexandria and Antioch decide?
That humanity and divinity were one (Defined Jesus' nature)
What 4 churches came to being after the Alexadria and Antioch conflict?
Monophysites, Captic church, Jacobite, Nestorian
What acts of the Roman church lead to it's prominence in Rome?
framed Apostles creed, stated NT was canon, all others turned towards them as authority
What action did Pope Lelo I take to claim apolistic succession for the Bishop of Rome?
Clamed Peter was chief apostle
Whose teachings were the basis of 1st Christian monastics?
Who was the 1st well-known of the monastics?
Who developed the idea of communal monastic life?
When did St. Benedict form his monastic order?
What were some of the benedictine monk requirements?
Work in fields or shops, serious reading, worship all day & part of night
What was an important treasure that Benedictine monks gave us?
What is the Vulgate and who created it?
translation of OT and NT into latin
Who was the first pope who lived 590-604 AD?
Gregory the Great
What beliefs came about during Pope Gregory's term?
penance, purification of the soul after death, seek aid of Saints
When did St. Augustine live and where?
Bishop 354-430 N. Africa
Why was St. Augustine's autobiography "Confessions" considered a great landmark?
1st to deal with childhood emotions
(self analysis, master your passions)
Who was responsible for St. Augustine's conversion and baptism?
How did St. Augustine view God?
very near/close, God is only absolute good, God is available every moment
What is St. Agustine's view of the Trinity?
God is one in 3, all being equal
What is St. Augustine's view of a. human nature and b. salvation?
a. humans are depraved, original sin
b. God chooses who he saves
Which British monk opposed St. Augustine's idea of original sin?
Pelagios- said we were innately good and we just had a bad example from Adam
What is St. Augustine's view of the church?
There is only 1 church, all others can't be saved, only the church performs the sacaiments
What did the Donatists believe?
sacraments performed by unworthy priests were ineffectual
What was St. Austustine's great treatise on his philosophy of history and the church?
A rebuttle against Roman Barbarian pilaging
He believed there was a City of God, an earthly city that passes away (God's elect from every age)
Who was responsible for keeping Muslim invaders from taking France in 732?
Constantinople and Charles Martel (a Frankish chieftan)
What was the conflict between Emperor Leo III and Pope Gregory II?
Pope wanted reform despite Muslim peril, he also did not like idolotry, Romans do
What was the result of the conflict between Emporer Leo and Pope Gregory?
Pope wanted excommunication of those who don't like idols, Pope asked for Charles Martel's help- Charle's son invaded Italy and took Province
Who restored the property that the Vatican lost in 1870?
Mussolini in 1929
What is Filoque?
"and from the son" Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father & the Son
Why was Filoque controversial between East and West?
The East thought that adding "and the son" took power away from God
What was the final straw between the East and the Western Christian church?
Excommunicated patriarch of Constantinople, the 2 churches split (are more like separated states, both kept Eastern tradition)
What place is called the "Third Rome"?
Who was the ancient father of the Orthodox Church credited with systemizing the Eastern faith through creeds and other writings?
John of Damascus
Describe byzantine architecture of Eastern Orthodox churches
dome on rectangular or octagonal substructure, supported by 1/2 domes & buttresses, mosaics, icons on plaques
How did John of Damascus feel about idols?
liked them, felt they conveyed grace to believers
What came from the last General Council in 787?
honor the idols, but not true worship
What are the main differences between the East and Roman church until Vatican II
East- Icons are only symbols
Romans- use images to bring divine beings closer to us
East Mary was mother of Jesus
Romans- Also compassionate to supplicants
East- invoke the Holy Spirit
What was the" Donation of Constantine"?
a forgery of Constantine as granting popes not only spiritual supremacy but also temple dominion over Italy & West
**was discredited in 15th century*
What is simony?
paying for appointment to high office
Which emperor had the first great conflict with Papal power under Gregory 7th?
disagreed that bishops should be appointed by pope
Married bishops should give up their wives
What was the conflict between Pope Innocent 3 and Henry 2?
Election of Bishops to King
Thomas Becket opposed and Henry killed him
What did Pope Innocent 3's contribution?
transubstantiation was kept, Good standing Catholics must participate in confession, absolution & communion
What does the word Cathedral mean?
Cathedra= throne (of a bishop)
What are 3 types of cathedrals?
Byzantine (domes) Romanesque ( semi-circular arches & vaults)
Gothic (pointed arches & ribbed construction)
Why were cathedrals erected?
celebration of mass & rites
What part of mass was prohibited for a layperson until Vatican 2?
no blood at communion (only wafer)
Name 3 of the 1st universities started in cathedrals & monestaries and what were each known for?
Bologna- canon & civil law
Who was the greatest Catholic scholastic?
What was Thomas Aquinas's background?
noble family, was a dominican friar, taught at Cologne & Paris & Italy
What 2 great books did Thomas Aquinas write?
Summa Contra- Gentiles
What did Thomas Aquinas believe the relationship between faith and reason was?
They compliment each other, you can reason God's existence, they need each other to exist
How did Aristotle and Aquinas agree about the human person?
Body & soul are separate but functionally necessary to each other
What did Aquinas believe to be the 2 parts of the sacraments?
Material element (bread, water, oil)
Formal element (liturgical formulas)
What virtues did Aquinas believe that humans could not possess without God?
faith, love, hope
Who founded the Dominican order of monastics
Bernard of Clairvaux- they witnessed to Europe
Dominican monks were also called
Black friars- took poverty vows, begged for food
What is the elect head of each Domincan monastery called?
they oversaw a prior or prioress
What was St. Francis of Assisi's background?
founder of Franciscans
disinherited, illness lead to religious experience, loved nature
Who founded the 2nd order of Franciscans for women?
What are the 3 branches of Franciscans and how are they identified?
Friars Minor- dark brown tunics
Capuchins- more rigorous, wore grey
Conventuals- black tunics, less rigorous
Name 4 great mystics of the midieval catholic church
Hugo of St. Victor, Bonaventura, Meister Eckhart, Johann Tauler
What helped cause the decline in papal power in 1300's?
Empire of countries broke up into petty kingdoms, Phillip the fair called parliment together & pope didn't like not to be the head of things. Pope was found criminal & arrested. Kings then ruled over successive popes & limited their authority.
What is the" great schism"?
resulting damage to papal prestige
Who was Julian of Norwich ?
female mystic- saw visions (God's love, sin separates us from God)
Who was Catherine of Siena?
Female mystic- vision of marriage to Christ. Worked among black plague, guided papacy back to Rome.
Who was Teresa of Avila?
Female mystic- reformed Carmelite order
What effect did the Renaissance have on common people in the church?
began to question morals & manners of clergy & criticize established practices
What practices of clergy were most criticized by people of the church?
sale of indulgences, money fees for baptisms & other rites
Who translated the Latin Vilgate Bible?
What resulted from church councils called at the Constance & Basel in 15th century?
Needed reform of church, disposed of rival popes & left only 1 single pontiff in Rome
When did the Protestant reform begin?
1500's It was a rise of middle class to self
What was Martin Luther's background?
German peasant parents, he was an Augustinian monk, worked hard to find God but still didn't find Him. He was a professor at Wittenberg. Had an epiphany to live by faith alone. Wrote protests & was attacked.
What is sola fide?
by faith alone
What did Martin Luther do on Halloween 1517?
wrote protests on castle church
"the 95 theses"
What were Martin Luther's convictions?
don't need saints, ask God for forgiveness, personal relationship, true church is believers with Christ at head
What was Martin Luther's Diet at Worms?
sommoned to Diet because he was questioning authority of Catholic church.
What is Martin Luther's Sola Scriptura?
by scripture alone
Why was Martin Luther being hidden away at Wartburg Castle?
he was being hidden away by the prince
He translated the bible into German while there
Why did people consider Luther too conservative in worship?
He still used candles, crucifix & organ
Once catholic monks and nuns left their monastaries, how were they used by the Lutherans?
as schools and universities
What was the "Peace at Augsburg" in 1555?
equal rights to Catholics and Lutherans
Who was responsible for the radical reformation in Switzerland?
"Jesus could not be omnipresent and called to communion alters all at once"
What changes did Ulrich Zwingli make?
Body was symbolic, ritual kept to minimum, sermaon was made the central element
How did Zwingli die?
Who wrote "The Institutes of the Christian Religion" and what what is about?
John Calvin- it defined the Protestant position
Presbyterianism formed from writings
What were the 5 primary ideas outlined by John Calvin?
God is soveign, humans innately know God, human depravity corrupts the whole nature, God chooses who He saves, predestination
The French protestants were called?
How many wars were fought between Protestants and Catholics? What agreements came of them ultimately?
Edicts of Nantes- gave complete liberty of concsciousness, full civil rights, control of 200 towns
Who revoked the Edicts of Nantes in 1685?
French King Louis 14th
Who reinstated the Edicts of Nantes in 1802?
Who controlled the Netherlands and what was the response of the king to attempt reformation there?
Spain controlled Netherlands
King Phillip 2 of Spain did not want reformation