determinant of cloud formation and precipitation
the vertical movement of air enhances cloud formation leading to rainfall
three types of rainfall
Frontal, orographic and convective
Two masses of air of different temperature, humidity and density meet
Warm moisture-laden wind blowing in to the land from the sea encounters a natural barrier
Rising of warm, moist air due to surface heating
an area that has little precipitation because some barrier causes the winds to lose their moisture before reaching it
the relationship between central pressure and hurricane intensity
Lower surface pressures encourage a more rapid inflow of air at the surface, more thunderstorms, more heat, lower surface pressure, stronger winds, and so on making intensity increase
the range in average annual rainfall in Florida
the state in the U.S. the most rainy days per year and the type
Mount Wai-'ale'ale on the island of Kauai, Hawaii
the % of earth's water in the oceans
the largest inland body of water and why it is not considered a lake by some
Caspin Sea. It has a high salinity
a closed drainage basin that retains water and allows no outflow to other bodies of water such as rivers or oceans. Has water flowing into it but no water flowing out so the only way that water can leave is evaporation so salt is left behind causing salinity.
the largest and the smallest oceans by area
Pacific and Arctic
Total land area that drains surface water to a common point.
principal sources of salts to rivers
erosion of rocks and minerals and dissolution of salts
why oceans have high concentrations of salts
Evaporation concentrates salts left behind after water leaves
two dominant ions in river water
Carbonate and Calcium
two dominant ions in ocean water
Cholride and Sodium
how the two dominant ions from river water are removed
Carbonate and Calcium removed from ocean water principally by organisms
how the two dominant ions in the ocean are enriched
Chloride and Sodium -enriched through very high solubility. Once they enter the ocean they stay formed solids in the ocean
% of earth's water that is readily available freshwater
the % of available freshwater that is groundwater.
the country with the largest per capita water use.
the three major factors causing increasing water demand over the past century
population growth, expansion of irrigated agriculture, industrial development
the percentage of world energy that is devoted to producing plant available nitrogen.
the % of overall consumption used for domestic, agricultural and industrial uses.
10%, 65-70%, and 20-25%
Does the U.S. dominantly use surface water or groundwater?
the number one uses for surface water and groundwater the U.S.
surface-thermal electric power generation and groundwater- irrigation
Approximately how much water is withdrawn in Florida every day?
7 billion gallons/day
What is the largest lake in the world?
What is the largest freshwater lake in the world?
the % of the earth's surface freshwater in the Great Lakes and in Lake Baikal.
The oldest lake basins were created by what process?
deepest lake in the world
saltiest lake in the world
largest watershed in the world and the % of freshwater it contributes to the world's oceans.
Amazon Watershed contributes 20%
the largest watershed in the U.S.
the driving force for river flow. one of the major determining factors for the velocity of the ocean floor.
how to calculate a gradient
the difference in elevation divided by length.
basic impact gradient has on flow velocity
the higher the gradient the stronger the flow
why river flow is generally slow in Florida
low elevation, little topography, Florida is flat.
Florida's highest elevation
4 basic aquifer types
confined, unconfined, consolidated, unconsolidated
how artesian conditions are created in confined aquifers
the well can tap into the water via high pressure built up in confined aquifers
Florida's principal aquifer system is
confined and consolidated
Over-exploitation of renewable
and non-renewable groundwater where Withdrawals exceed recharge creating deficits in the aquifer because it lacks recharge. USING A WATER RESUOURCE FASTER THAN IT CAN BE REPLENISHED
the country in the middle east that uses the highest percentage of non-renewable groundwater.
What is the Central Arizona Project?
A canal stretching 335 miles from the Colorado River to Tucson redirecting 44 billion gallons/year
principal way by which drainage of the everglades was accomplished in the early part of the 20th century
Construction of a canal south of Lake okeechobee
the current population Florida
about 18 million
2 developments that allowed for a rapid population increase in the 50s.
air condition and mosquito control via DDT
A high quality non-potable water supply that is not meant for potable drinking purposes. Wastewater that has been treated to the extent that it can be used for irrigated purposes.
the fundamental evolution of the carbonate elements of the Florida platform including the time frames, the origin of the carbonates, general conditions relative to sea levels, etc.
CaCo3+MgCo3-150myago continued until 25myago
the time period during which deposition of the limestone that comprises the principal water-bearing unit of the Floridan were laid down.
55-24 million years ago
continental materials did not intrude substantially on the platform for approximately 125 mil. years ago
Because of the existence of the Georgia channel and the Suwannee Current
how the Florida aqufier is made porous and able to contain and transmit water
Acid dissolution via rainfall
all of the material that is falling into the cavities manifest themselves at the surface by creating depression areas characterized by caves, sinkholes, and other types of openings caused by dissolution, and by few surface streams.
3 sinkhole types
cover collapse, cover subsidence, dissolution
chemical erosion of limestone at the surface.
gradual infill of overburden into a solution cavity
abrupt collapse of overburden
most common form of lake formation in Florida