microbio chpt 4

20 terms by jadenic8 

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ABC transport system

a membrane transport system consisting of 3 proteins, one of which hydrolyzes ATP, which transports specific nutrients into the cell.

basal body

a structure resembling a centriole that produces a cilium or flagellum and anchors this structure within the plasma membrane

chemotaxis

in prokaryotes and protists, the movement toward or away from a chemical stimulus, such as the movement toward food or away from a toxin

dipicolonic acid

found in bacterial endospores, pack the chromosome tightly to stay haploid during replication

sterols

lipids between the tails of phospholipids of eukaryotes

hopanoids

sterol-like molecules that stablize the membrane

simple transporter

symporter, antiporter, uniporter

murein

lipoprotein present in Gram-negative outer membrane;

peptidoglycan

A type of polymer in bacterial cell walls consisting of modified sugars cross-linked by short polypeptides.

mucopeptide

The cell wall of a prokaryotic cell (bacteria). Provides shape, rigidity, and protection.

protoplast

a gram(+) cell that has been exposed to lysoenzyme or penicillin and lost its cell wall

lps

an unusual compound found only in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. it is a combination molecule with a lipid moiety on one end and polysaccharide on the other. the lipid end is hydrophobic and the polysaccharide talil is hydrophilic. this serves as a barrier to polar and nonpolar molecules...as a resul, only water and a few gases can cross the lipid par of the outer membrane.

porin

transmembrane protein that forms pores for the facilitated diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules; found in the outer membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and many bacteria.

endospore

a small asexual spore that develops inside the cell of some bacteria and algae, a thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions

flagellin

Subunits of the protein filaments in flagella

fimbriae

hair-like structures that are shorter, thinner, and straighter than flagella - used for attachment, not movement

pili

short, hairlike protein structures on the surface of some bacteria

s-layer

Proteins that form the outermost cell envelope component of a broad spectrum of bacteria, enabling them to adhere to host cell membranes and environmental surfaces in order to colonize.

gas vesicles

gas-filled cytoplasmic structures bounded by protein and conferring buoyancy on cells

magnetosomes

inclusion bodies that allow bacteria to detect magnetic field

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