diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria
abnormally high blood sugar usually associated with diabetes
type 1 diabetes mellitus
diabetes in which there is no beta cell production of insulin--the patient is dependent on insulin for survival
type 2 diabetes mellitus
diabetes in which the body produces insulin, but not enough, or there is insulin resistance (a defective use of the insulin that is produced)--the patient usually is not dependent on insulin for survival
gestational diabetes mellitus
is inability to produce enough insulin to maintain normal glucose levels during pregnancy...
impaired glucose tolerance
IGT - a condition in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes, 140-199 pc gtt 2 hrs
impaired fasting glucose
IFG, fasting blood glucose levels that are higher than normal but not high enough to lead to a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes , 100-125
diagnosed when fasting glucose levels are higher than normal (100 mg/dl) but lower than 126 mg/dl; people with prediabetes usually develop type II diabetes within 10 years; treat with weight loss and exercise to prevent onset of type II diabetes
1) retinopathy; 2) neuropathy; 3) nephropathy
diseases of the large and medium size blood vessels that occur with greater frequency and with an earlier onset in people with diabetes; atherosclerosis; increased risk of heart attack, stroke and amputations
motor and sensory changes in the feet and legs, and progressive changes in other nerves an the oxygen is cut off
abnormal skin sensations (as tingling or tickling or itching or burning) usually associated with peripheral nerve damage
abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
insulin therapy that requires multiple daily injections of insulin and frequent self monitoring of blood glucose levels (4-6 times per day)
TSH - Produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Binds to receptors on cells of the thyroid gland, which in turn stimulate the synthesis of thyroxin. Regulated through a negative feed back loop.
(T3) A hormone produced by the thyroid gland known as T3 that requires iodine for its production. This hormone regulates the level of cell metabolism. The greater the level of hormone in the blood stream, the higher cell metabolism will be.
condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often obesity
advanced hypothyroidism in adults - sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands & face, dry skin and swellings around lips and nose as well as mental deterioration (myx = mucous),
condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical stature; the thyroid gland is either congenitally absent or imperfectly developed
excessive activity of the thyroid gland
condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by exophthalmia, tachycardia, goiter, and tumor
(131 I) radioactive isotope that is used to destroy thyroid tissue by emission of beta particles, Used for tx of Grave's disease and hyperthyroidism that hasn't responded to other tx
T4 - , hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells
Steroid hormones secreted from the adrenal cortex. The two major classes are teh mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. Aldosterone is the principal mineralocorticoid, and cortisol is the principal glucorcorticoid.
a class of steroid hormones (similar to aldosterone in their influence on salt and water balance). regulates mineral levels in blood; kidney is target organ; stimulated by humoral factors
Steriod, increases blood glucose in response to stress. Influences cell metabolism, keeps sugar levels constant, maintains blood volume by controlling water, triggered more by stress and trauma, examples are cortisone and cortisol, triggered by starvation
secreted from the adrenal cortex, aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels and suppressing immune system function