Reasons for War
1. Nationalism- pride in one's country (European Nationalists common language and cultures should stick together - encouraged unity but creates distrust) 2. Imperialism- Nations competing in the same region lead to war (Samoa, spheres of influence in China) 3. Militarism- Building strong armed forces to prepare for war (creates tension) 4. Rival Alliances- formed for protection a. Allies agreed to help each other in the event of war b. minor indecent could lead to war c. Triple Alliance-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy d. Triple Entente- Great Britain, France, Russia
What was the trigger for the Great War?
the assignation of Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia)
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Even though the US was neutral who did they trade with the most?
Allied Powers because the British were blockading Germany so the US couldn't trade with them.
What did Germany use U-boats for?
going under water and sinking ships that went into the British harbor.
May 7, 1915; US is mad and threatens to join the Allied powers (Germany organizes the Sussex pledge)
What makes the US think about entering the war?
1. Germany resumes submarine warfare (u-boats sink all ships including some US ships and Wilson is mad) 2. Zimmerman Telegram- Germany send a telegram to Mexico saying that if they help Germany, that they will give them New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona (it was intercepted by Britain before it got to Mexico) 3. Russian Revolution- ????
Selective Service Act- white men 21-30 names into basket and were drawn out (who ever gets picked goes) later African Americans were in all black troops with white leaders
Firsts in the Military
A. military authority and discipline B. left their farms and villages C. regular baths and meals D. indoor plumbing E. 25% illiterate- army becomes educator
Public Education reforms
A. longer school day B. mandatory attendance C. raised teacher training standards
Supplying the Allies
British troops warn out, American troops fresh and eager. French troops refused to fight. British running out of people and people starving.
November 1917; Bolsheviks overthrew the czar and Russia dropped out to focus on the revolution
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Germany Gains Poland, Ukraine, and iron ore deposits. Moves troops to the western front.
What helped the Allied Powers win the war?
American troops fresh and eager helped and Germany had no food or supplies so they had to quit
stepped into male jobs but earned less; changes stereotypes of "women's work"; did not last after the war
migrations from the south to north Mexican Americans and African Americans- escape poverty and discrimination
The Food Administration
"wheatless mondays" "meatless tuesdays" "porkless thursdays"- people save the food that there giving up on that day and send it to the soldiers
effects of the war
Europe lay in runes, France Germany Russia and Austria Hungary each lost between 1-2 million deaths, millions more wounded, 9 million ppl dead world wide, millions homeless and starving, new nations struggled to form from old empires
Wilson goes to Europe to discuss his peace plan- no one country should have to pay (other leaders did not agree)
Treaty of Versailles
most famous WW1 treaty; treaty between Germany and the allied powers in which Germany accepted full responsibility for the war and agreed to pay reparation; the US did not ratify the treaty.