Chapter 20: Heart

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Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits

The two major divisions of the cardiovascular system.

Pulmonary Circuit

This circuit carries blood to the lungs.

Systemic Circuit

This circuit carries blood to every part of the body.

Goes from Pulmonary Trunk to Lungs to Pick Up Oxygen, Then Travels Back to Heart Via the Pulmonary Veins.

Description of path of pulmonary circuit.

Goes from Aorta to Every Part of Body to Pick Up CO2, Then Travels Back to Heart Via the Superior and Inferior Vena Cava.

Description of path of systemic circuit.

Base; Apex

The top of the heart is the ________; the bottom the _______.

Pericardium

The heart is enclosed by this double-walled sac.

Pericardial Sac (Outside) and Epicardium (Inside)

The pericardium is made of these two layers.

Epicardium, Myocardium, and Endocardium

Three layers of heart wall.

Epicardium

This outermost heart wall layer is made of simple squamous cells, and most of the coronary vessels travel through this layer.

Endocardium

Heart wall layer that lines the interior of the chambers.

Myocardium

Heart wall layer that performs the work of the heart; mostly cardiac muscle.

Fibrous Skeleton

Connective tissue mesh-work around the valves of the heart.

The Right and Left Atria, and the Right and Left Ventricles

The four chambers of the heart.

Atria

These chambers receive blood returning to the heart.

Ventricles

These chambers eject blood into arteries.

The Left and Right AV valves, The Pulmonary Valve, and The Aortic Valve.

The four valves of the heart.

Atrioventricular (AV) valves

These valves regulate the openings between the atria and ventricles.

Pulmonary and Aortic Valves

Also known as semilunar valves, these valves regulate the flow of blood from the ventricles to the arteries.

1. Blood Enters Right Atrium; 2. Blood Flows from Right Atrium to Right Ventricle; 3. Pulmonary Valve Opens from Contraction; 4. Blood Goes Into Pulmonary Trunk; 5. Blood Travels to Lungs; 6. Blood Returns to Heart Via the Pulmonary Veins Into Left Atrium; 7. Blood Flows from Left Atrium to Left Ventricle; 8. Aortic Value Opens from Contraction; 9. Blood Travels Into Aorta; 10. Blood is Distributed to Body; 11. Blood Returns to Heart Via Venae Cavae

Pathway of blood through heart.

75 Beats Per Minute

Average resting heart rate.

Coronary Circulation

The circulation of blood into the heart.

Left and Right Coronary Arteries

Two coronary arteries found directly after the aorta.

Ventricular Relaxation

Coronary blood flow increases during __________.

Coronary Sinus

Coronary blood drains into this from the great cardiac vein, the posterior interventricular vein, and the left marginal vein. This then drains the blood into the right atrium.

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