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New Imperialism

Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories. (p. 726)

"Jewel in the Crown"

the British colony of India--- so called because of its importance in the British empire, both as a supplier of raw materials and as a market for British trade goods

Indian National Congress

A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class Hindu nationalists, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.

Sphere of Influence

area in another country where a foreign power has exclusive right to trade or invest

Afrikaner

belonging or relating to white people of South Africa whose ancestors were Dutch or to their language

"Civilizing Mission"

The notion that colonialism was a duty for Europeans and a benefit for the colonized - social darwinism

King Leopold II

King of Belgium who supported colonization of the Congo; eventually ruled Congo as his own domain but inflicted pain and torture on the natives; turned the Congo over to the Belgian government, before he died, which did away with most of these cruel mistreatments

Joseph Conrad

wrote "Heart of Darkness" which criticized selfishness of Europeans "civilizing" Africa; its main character was a liberal turned to a brute by power in Africa

concentration camps

camps first established by Great Britain during the Boer War to incarcerate noncombatant civilians

Commodore Matthew Perry

the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japanese ports to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.

Boxer Rebellion

A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country. The rebellion was suppressed by British Troops

Captain James Cook

English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779)

Imperialism of Free Trade

the advance of European economic and political interests in the nineteenth century by demanding that non-European nations allow European nations, Great Britain, to introduce their manufactured goods freely into all nations or to introduce other goods, such as opium into China, that allowed those nations to establish economic influence and to determine the terms of trade

East India Company

An English company formed in 1600 to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia.

Protectorate

a state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs

J.A. Hobson

(1858-1940) Emphasized importance of econ factors in Imperialism: A Study which was published in 1902. Argued that the great financiers were wanting to increase wealth through overseas investment and that they were the power behind imperialist policies of European powers and were able to manipulate public opinion in favor of expansion. Claimed they used their political influence to get govts involved in overseas ventures. The criticism against Hobson's view is that motives were never purely economic. Economic factor was one of several and not necessarily the most important. In fact, there were some colonies that had virtually no economic value at all.

Boer War

a conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa. Great Britain won & unified South Africa

Khedives

Descendants of Muhammad Ali in Egypt after 1867; formal rulers of Egypt despite French and English intervention until overthrown by military coup in 1952.

Henry Morton Stanley

(1841-1904) British-American explorer of Africa, famous for his expeditions in search of Dr. David Livingstone. Stanley helped King Leopold II establish the Congo Free State.

Great Trek

the migration by Boer (Dutch) farmers during the 1830s & 18402 from regions around Cape Town into the eastern and northeastern regions of South Africa that ultimately resulted in the founding of the Orange Free State & Transvaal

Apartheid

an official policy of segregation, assignment of peoples to distinct regions, and other forms of social, political, and economic discrimination based on race associated primarily with South Africa

Spanish - American War

War fought in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.

Robert Fulton

American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)

Dr. Walter Reed

U.S. Army physician who in 1900 led the team which confirmed the theory (first set forth in 1881 by Cuban doctor/scientist Carlos Finlay) that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes

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