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CT that covers peripheral nerve

Epineurium

CT that divides nerve into fascicles

Perineurium

CT that surrounds each axon

Endoneurium

Spinal nerves pass through

Intervertebral foramina

Bundles of axons

Fascicles

Dorsal root carries ___ fibers.

Sensory fibers

Ventral root carries ___ fibers.

Motor fibers

Forms nerve plexuses

Ventral rami

Nerve plexuses (4):

Cervical
Brachial
Lumbar
Sacral

Cervical plexus formed by

Ventral rami of first 4 cervical nerves

Innervates the infrahyoid muscles

Deep motor branches: Ansa cervicalis (C1-C3)

Nerves that innervate deep neck muscles: geniohyoid, thyrohyoid
+levator scapulae, scalene, sternocleidomastoid, and trapezius muscles

Segmental cervical nerves (C1-C5)

Nerve innervating diaphragm

Phrenic nerve (C3-C5)

Hiccups/ diaphragm spasms are caused by:

Irritation of phrenic nerves

What happens when phrenic nerve is severed?

Diaphragm is paralyzed--> artificial respirator

Plexus that innervates pectoral girdle & upper limb

Brachial plexus (C5-T1)

Brachial plexus palpated

Just superior to the clavicle at the lateral border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle

5 Main nerves of brachial plexus

Axillary
Radial
Musculocutaneous
Median
Ulnar

Nerve that innervates deltoid & teres muscles

Axillary nerve

Nerve that supplies biceps brachii & brachialis muscles

Musculocutaneous nerve

Nerve that supplies the skin and most of the flexor muscles

Median nerve

Nerve innervates 5 intrinsic muscles of the lateral palm

Median nerve

Nerve activates muscles that pronate the forearm, flex the wrist and fingers and oppose the thumb

Median nerve

Nerve supplies sensation to the lateral palm, thumb, digits II-III and half of IV on the anterior surface, and the dorsum of digits II-IV

Median nerve

Nerve supplies the flexor carpi ulnaris and the medial part of the flexor digitorum profundus

Ulnar nerve

Nerve produces wrist and finger flexion, adduction and abduction of the medial fingers

Ulnar nerve

The largest branch of the brachial plexus and is a continuation of the posterior cord

Radial nerve

Nerve wraps around the humerus in the radial groove, then runs around the lateral epicondyle of the elbow

Radial nerve

Motor fibers innervate all the extensors of the upper limb, forearm supination, wrist and finger extension and thumb abduction

Radial nerve

Damage to radial nerve innervating forearm extensors causes

Wrist drop

Pressure on the radial nerve caused by pressing it into the radial groove on the humerus

Saturday night paralysis (crutches)

Bending or stretching of the neck in a direction away from side of injury- Radial disorder

Erb's palsy

When individuals have difficulty making a fist and gripping objects "claw hand", there is damage in the

Ulnar nerve

Problems adducting or abducting fingers due to damage in the

Ulnar nerve

Sensory deficit to half of III & all of IV due to damage in the

Ulnar nerve

Inability to pronate arm & difficulty flexing wrist due to damage in the

Median nerve

Carpal tunnel syndrome caused by repetitive flexion pressing nerve against the

Flexor retinaculum- median nerve

"Oh bleep nerve" due to hitting epicondyle

Ulnar nerve

Severed in suicide attempts

Median nerve

Rotates the scapula so that its inferior angle moves laterally and upward

Serratus anterior

When long thoracic nerve is chronically compressed as when doing military presses, or activities such as rock climbing

The scapula "wings" out away from the thorax

Plexus lies within the psoas major muscle

Lumbar plexus

Plexus innervate the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles, genitals, and psoas major

Lumbar plexus

Nerve provides sensation to skin of the genitals and proximal medial aspect of the thigh (inner thigh).

Ilioinguinal nerve (lumbar plexus) L1

Nerve sensory to the scrotum in males and labia majora in females

Genitofemoral nerve (lumbar plexus) L1-L2

Stimulation of this nerve causes the cremaster to contract which elevates the testes (cremasteric reflex).

Genitofemoral nerve

Reflex for regulating temperature for sperm production

Cremasteric reflex

Nerve motor to the adductor magnus, gracilis and obturator externus muscles

Obturator nerve (lumbar plexus)

Nerve is biggest of the lumbar plexus

Femoral nerve (L2-L4)

Nerve motor to the quadriceps and sartorius muscles of the thigh and to the pectineus and iliacus

Femoral nerve

Damage to this nerve results in an inability to extend the leg at the knee

Femoral nerve

If the spinal roots of the lumbar plexus are compressed

Will have abnormal gait/walk

2 Plexuses overlap & share fibers

Lumbar & Sacral= lumbosaral plexus

Plexus supplies the gluteal region, floor of the pelvis and the lower extremities

Sacral plexus

What is the largest nerve of the sacral plexus/body?

Sciatic nerve

2 nerves of sciatic nerve

Tibial & fibular nerve

Nerve innervates short head biceps femoris,fibularis muscles, tibialis anterior, toe extensors.

Fibular nerve (Sciatic)

Nerve innervates long head biceps femoris, knee flexors, plantar flexors.

Tibial nerve (Sciatic)

Nerve innervates muscles of perineum, urogenital diaphragm, anal & urethral sphincters.

Pudendal nerve (Sacral plexus)

Nerve innervates the knee joint, the fibularis longus and brevis muscles, tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus and extensors digitorum longus and brevis

Common fibular nerve

Nerve supplies the posterior compartment of the lower leg

Tibial nerve

Nerve motor to the gluteus medius and minimus and to the tensor fascia latae

The superior gluteal nerve

Nerve innervates the gluteus maximus.

The inferior gluteal nerves

Damage/pinching of sciatic nerve results in pain from _ to _

butt to back of leg

Condition characterized by intense stabbing pain radiating over the course of the sciatic nerve from gluteal region to toes

Sciatica

Condition below the knee, injury to common fibular (peroneal) nerve innervating the tibialis anterior

Foot drop

Unable to dorsiflex the foot while walking which can cause the individual to stumble and fall

Foot drop

Calf muscles cannot plantar flex the foot resulting in a shuffling gait due to

Damage to tibial nerve

The area of the skin innervated by a single pair of spinal nerves

Dermatome

What spinal nerve does NOT innervate dermatomes?

C1

Knowledge of dermatomes help determine

damaged nerves & level of spinal cord injury

Loss of sensation corresponding to the region of skin supplied by the affected nerve due to

Damage/infection of spinal nerve or dorsal root ganglion

Asphyxiation may result if the ______ nerve is damaged. This nerve is derived from the _______plexus.

Phrenic; cervical

Damage to the femoral nerve results in an inability to ___________ the leg.

Straighten/extend

Carries fibers to posterior trunk where it innervates skeletal muscle & skin of somite

Dorsal ramus

Infrahyoid muscles innervated by

Ansa cervicalis

Innervates biceps brachii muscle

Musculocutaneous nerve

Wrist drop results from damage to the ___ nerve

Radial nerve

Difficulty making a fist & grabbing objects results from damage to ___ nerve

Median nerve

A hypoactive patellar reflex may indicate damage to the ___ nerve

Femoral nerve

Foot drop results from damage to the ___ nerve

Common fibular/peroneal nerve

Shuffling gait due to damage to the ___ nerve

Tibial nerve

Type of receptor causes muscles to relax & lengthens in response to excessive tension

Golgi tendon organ

Type of receptor that works to maintain tension in the muscle

Muscle spindle

Damage to corticospinal tract is detected by abnormal reflex known as the

Babinski sign

An absent corneal reflex may indicate damage to the

Pons

Reflexes that are observed on one side of body when other side is stimulated are ___.

Consensual

Pupils constrict when bright light strikes eye; sympathetic or parasympathetic?

Parasympathetic division

Ciliospinal reflex is mediated through sympathetic or parasympathetic?

Sympathetic division

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