What is the problem with sampling?
usually can't research the entire population
What does representative sampling reflect?
the whole population
amount where people have a known chance of being selected
what does non probability sampling reflect?
amount where people have an unknown or no chance of being selected
what is sampling frame?
list of all members of the relevant population
What are the three sampling frames?
cluster, stratified, and simple random
what are the three types of social surveys?
Face to face, self completion, telephone interviews
What are the advantages and disadvatages of face to face social surveys?
advantages: can explain questions, length can vary, use non verbal cues, use visual aids, scope for unstructured questions, interviewer controls environment
disadvantages: cost can be high and limiting, can introduce bias,
what are the advantages and disadvantages of self completion social surveys?
advantages: cheap, wide sample, reduce bias, anonymity increases reliability
disadvantages: low response rate, no control with who competes, questions must be short and clear, low level of literacy excludes participants
what are advantages and disadvantages of telephone social surveys?
advantages: computerized, wide geographical range, fewer interviewer effects, interviews can be monitored
disadvantages: need simple short questions, higher break off rates, sensitive question are difficult, no nonverbal cues
what is a small group discussion focused around a particular topic and facilitated by a researcher?
what are four types of focus groups?
fixed question, visual cues, group exercise, topic guide of themes
ethnography contrasts with scientific method emphasizing on what?
what is participating in peoples lives for an extended period of time?
what do ethnographers do?
study the culture (they are researching) by recording what happens, listen to what is said, and asking questions
what is phenomenology the study of?
conscious experience of the social world and everyday social life
phenomenology is a method used by ethnographers and sociologists pursuing what theories?
action theory and symbolic interaction
what deconstructs and abandons reality for ethnography and story telling?
what is the term adopted by Geertz that looks for symbol and analysis of society like a cultural script
what is historic archival data?
data obtained through history
what are 4 types of archival data?
oral, documentary, primary, secondary
What is oral historic data
information that is told to researchers
what is documentary data?
written sources (like diaries or letters)
actual historical records or artifacts
what are secondary sources?
accounts that were written about an event days to months to years later
how do visual images and the internet come into play during research?
one can study visual aspects of society, one could use visual aspects as research tools, one could do content analysis of tv and movies, using the internet is an inexpensive and fast way of collecting data
what idea does multiple methods put forth? why?
methods are not expected to confirm or provide consistent results because the world is full of diversity, contradiction, and conflicting results
what are structured investigations into a problem or topic?
what is not just a long essay?
what is a dissertation needed for?
completion of a master degree and/or a PHd
what is groupthink used in?
type of thought within a deeply cohesive group
what is an important thing to consider during impression management?
are you representing or misrepresenting yourself?
what questions does impression management raise?
how am I seen, look, act, speak, behave?
what is needed in impression management?
an impression that facilitates observation and does not produce obstacles
what is cluster sampling?
when a population is geographically spread out
what is stratified sampling?
when a population is spread out into groups
what is simple random sampling?
when people are selected lottery style