psyc 2and5

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A biological psychologist would be most interested in conducting research on the relationship between

neurotransmitters and depression

For you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle ____ must first relay incomining pain messages from your ankle to your spinal cord

Sensory neurons

Dendrites are branching extensions of

Neurons

The function of dendrites is to

Receive incoming signals from other neurons

An axon is

The extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body

The longest part of a motor neuron is likely to be the

Axon

The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n)

Myelin sheath

A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the

Action potential

The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n)

Action potential

The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the

Threshold

A synapse is a(n)

Junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron

The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called

Neurotransmitters

Reuptake refers to the

Reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron

Curare is paralyzing poison that functions as a(n)

Ach antagonist

The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the ___nervous system

Peripheral

The central nervous system consists of

The brain and the spinal cord

Messengers are transmitted from your spinal cord to muscles in your hands by the _____nervous system

Peripheral

The somatic nervous system is a component of the ____nervous system

Peripheral

You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the

Sympathetic nervous system

Developmental psychologists study the physical.. cognitive.. and _____ changes throughout the human life cycle.

Social

One of the three major concerns of developmental psychology centers around the issue of

Continuity or stages

Human sperm cells ____ than egg cells

Are smaller

During the course of successful prenatal development.. a human organism begins as a(n)

Zygote and finally develops into a fetus

Babies are born with several reflexes for getting food. One of these is to

Open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek

From ages 3 to 6.. the brain's neural networks are sprouting most rapidly in the

Frontal lobes

Paiget was convinced that the mind of a child

Develops through a series of stages

According to Piaget.. schemas are

Peoples conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences

According to Piaget.. accommodation refers to

Adjusting current schemas in order to make sense of new experiences

Which of the following represents the current order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?

Sensorimotor.. preoperational.. concrete operational.. formal operational

Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Olivia is clearly in Piaget's ___stage

Sensorimotor

When Tommy's mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket.. he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of Piaget's ____ stage

Sensorimotor

If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation.. they are unable to

Recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape

According to Piaget.. egocentrism refers to

The difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view

Infants develop a fear of strangers at about 8 months of age because they can't assimilate unfamiliar faces into their

Schemas

Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatricians waiting room.. little Sandra tenaciously clings to her mother's skirt. Sandra most clearly shows signs of

Insecure attachment

In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting.. infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to

Use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings

Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the developmental of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers?

Responsive parenting

Already at 15 months of age.. Justin strongly senses that he can rely on his father to comfort and protect him. This most clearly contributes to

Basic trust

Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they

Impose rules and expect obedience

The McDougals use harsh discipline on their children and demand unquestioning obedience. Psychologists are likely to characterize the McDougals as _____parents.

Authoritarian

Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be

Authoritative

At the age of 12.. Sean is happy.. self-reliant.. and has a positive self-image. It is most likely that Sean's parents are

Authoritative

Adolescence extends from

The beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood

The selective loss of unused connections among the brain cells is called

Pruning

During adolescence.. maturation of the _____ lags behind maturation of the ____

Frontal lobe; limbic system

Piaget is to cognitive development as Kolhberg is to ___development

Moral

According to Kohlberg.. morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents ___morality

Postconventional

According to Kohlberg.. postconventional morality involves

Affirmation of self-defined ethical principles

Avoiding physical punishment is to _____ morality as respecting the laws of society are to ____morality

Preconventional; conventional

According to Erikson.. trust is to infancy as identity is to

Adolescence

Adolescents are most likely to be influenced by their parents with respect to _____.. and they are most likely to be influenced by their peers with respect to ____

Career aspirations; clothing preferences

Most 20-year olds outperform most 70-year olds on video games due to age-related differences in

Information-processing speed

Dementia is most commonly associated with

Alzheimer's disease

Compared with their counterparts of 40 years ago.. American men today are marrying

At and older age and American women are marrying at an older age

Psychologists who view the developmental process as a sequence of distinct stages generally believe that ____is(are) the same for everyone

The order but not the timing of the stages

Theories of human development have been most susceptible to criticism for overemphasizing..

Discrete age-linked stages

The stability of personality traits is greater among

Adults than among children

The parasympathetic nervous system

Stimulates digestion and slows heartbeat

After discovering that the shadows outside his window were only the trees in the yard.. Ralph's blood pressure decreased and his heartbeat slowed. These psychical reactions were most directly regulated by his

Parasympathetic nervous system

Neural networks refer to

Interrelated clusters of neurons in the central nervous system

A simple.. automatic.. inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a(n)

Reflex

Hormones are the chemical messengers of the

Endocrine system

The ovaries in females and the testes in males are part of the

Endocrine system

The master gland of the endocrine system us the

Pituitary gland

Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a(n)

Lesion

To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task.. researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n)

fMRI

The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the

Medulla

The reticular formation is located in the

Brainstem

The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the

Cerebellum

The cerebral cortex us the covering layer of the

Cerebrum

The occipital lobes are to ____ as the temporal lobes are to ____

Seeing; hearing

The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain

Plasticity

The benefits of brains plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in

Children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed

Those who corpus callosum is surgically severed are said to be patients with

Split brains

The ability to simultaneously copy the different figures with the right and left hand is most characteristic in those whose _____ has been cut

Corpus callosum

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