Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market.
With respect to a country, making progress in technology, production, and socioeconomic welfare.
The total value of all goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year. It includes all the goods and services produced by corporations and individuals of a country, whether or not they are located within the country.
GNP gross national product
The total value of all goods and services produced within a country in a year.
GDP gross domestic product
Monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus income recieved from investments outside the country.
GNI gross national income
GNI divided by the population.
per capita GNI
The legal economy that is taxed and monitored by a government and is included in a government's Gross National Product (GNP)`; as opposed to an informal economy.
Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government and is not included in that government's Gross National Product (GNP); as opposed to a formal economy.
A model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist Walter Rostow. The modernization model (sometimes referred to as modernization theory) maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption.
The geographical situation in which something occurs; the combination of what is happening at a variety of scales concurrently.
The entrenchment of the colonial order, such as trade and investment, under a new guise.
A general term for a model of economic development that treats economic disparities among countries or regions as the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic system.
A structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop.
When a poorer country ties the value of its currency to that of a wealthier country, or when it abandons its currency and adopts the wealthier country's currency as its own.
Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world.
With reference to Immanuel Wallerstein's world-systems theory, the division of the world into the core, the periphery, and the semi-periphery as a means to help explain the interconnections between places in the global economy.
When a family sends a child or an adult to a labor recruiter in hopes that the labor recruiter will send money, and the family member will earn money to send home.
Loans granted by international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to countries in the periphery and the semi periphery in exchange for certain economic and governmental reforms in that country (e.g. privatization of certain government entities and opening the country to foreign trade and investment).
structural adjustment loans
A disease carried from one host to another by an intermediate host.
Vectored disease spread by mosquitoes that carry the malaria parasite in their saliva and which kills approximately 150,000 children in the global periphery each month.
Zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment.
export processing zones
The term given to zones in northern Mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. market. The low-wage workers in the primarily foreign-owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials and then export finished goods.
Specific areas within a country, specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment.
special economic zones
Agreement entered into by Canada, US, and Mexico in December 1992 and which took effect on 1/1/94 to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
The encroachment of desert conditions on moister zones along the desert margins, where plant cover and soils are threatedned by dessiccation--through overuse in part by humans and their domestic animals and possibly in part becouse of the inexorable shifts in the Earth's environmental zones
Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure.
island of development
International organizations that, international organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social, economic, and environmental issues.
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
Program that provides small loans to poor people, especially women, to encourage development of small businesses.
The study of the physical form and structure of urban places.
Conglomerationof people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics.
The entire built-up, nonrural area and its population, including the most recently constructed suburban appendages. Provides a better picture of the dimensions and the population of such an area than the delimited municipality (central city) that forms its heart.
A relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. Starting over 10,000 years ago, people began to cluster in agricultural villages as they stayed in one place to tend to their crops.
One of two components, together with social stratification, that enable the formation of cities; agricultural production in excess of that which the producer needs for his or her own sustenance and that of his or her family which is then sold for consumption by others.
One of two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige.
Region adjacent to every town and city within which its influence is dominant.
In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.
central place theory
The movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern States to the South and Southwest regions (Sunbelt) of the United States.
The division of a city into different regions or zones (e.g. residential or industrial) for certain purposes or functions (e.g. housing or manufacturing).
Area of a city with relatively uniform land use (e.g an industrial zone, or a residential zone).
The downtown heart of a central city, the CBD is marked by high land values, a concentrationof business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
central business district
The urban area that is not suburban; generally, the older or original city that is surrounded by newer suburbs.
A subsidary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. Many are exclusively residential; others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls
Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (percieved and actual). In North America, the process began in the early nineteenth century and became a mass phenomenon by the second half of the twentieth century.
A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center.
concentric zone model
Group of decision-makers and organizers in early cities who controlled the resources, and often the lives, of others.
The innovation of the city, which occured independantly in five separate hearths.
first urban revolution
Region of great cities (e.g. Ur and Babylon) located between the Tigris and Euphrates RIvers; chronologically the first urban hearth, dating to 3500 BCE, and which was founded in the Fertile Crescent.
Chronologically the second urban hearth, dating to 3200 BCE.
Nile River Valley
Chronologically, the thrid urban hearth, dating to 2200 BCE.
Indus River Valley
Rivers in present-day China,; it was at the confluence of the Huang He and Wei where chronologically the fourth urban hearth was established around 1500 BCE.
Huang He and Wei
A term introduced by American journalist Joel Garreau in order to descrobe the shifting focus of urbanization in the United States away from the Central Business District (CBD) toward the new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe. These cities are characterized by extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings (less than 30 years old).
A spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independant zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception id the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the Central Business District (CBD).
Developed by geographers Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford, a model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene.
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.
Developed by geographer T.G. McGee, a model showing similar land-use patterns among the medium-sized cities of Southeast Asia.
Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard.
Legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas. In the United States, areas are most commonly divided into separate zones of residential, retail, or industrial use.
A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. The practice derived its name from the red lines depicted on cadastral maps used by real estate agents and developers. Today, redlining is officially illegal.
Rapid change in the racial composition of residential blocks in American cities that occurs when real estate agents and others stir up fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging people of color to move to previously white neighborhoods. In the resulting outmigration, real estate agents profit through the turnover of properties.
The transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity.
Chronologically the fifth urban hearth, dating to 200 BCE.
Literally "high point of the city." The upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city, usually devoted to religious purposes.
In ancient Greece, public spaces where citizens debated, lectured, judged one another, planned military campains, socialized, and traded.
The internal physical attributes of a place, including its absolute location, its spacial character and physical setting.
The focal point of ancient Roman life combining the functions of the ancient Greek acropolis and agora.
The external locational attributesof a place, including its absolute location, its spatial character and physical setting.
The rehabilitation of deteriorated, often abandoned, housing of low-income inner-city residents.
Homes brought in many American suburbs with the intent of tearing them down and replacing them with much larger homes often referred to as McMansions.
Homes referred to as such because of their "super size" and similarity in appearance to otehr such homes; homes often built in place of tear-downs in American suburbs.
Unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning.
Outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
Restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests. Although predominantly high-income based, in North America gated communities are increasingly a middle-class phenomenon.
Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's Gross National Product (GNP); as opposed to a formal economy.
Dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy.
A country's largest city--ranking atop the urban hierarchy--most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital as well.
Areas of a city, the main purpose of which is to encourage people to consume goods and services; driven primarily by the global media industry.
spaces of consumption