1920's foreign policy
1919-1920: A nationwide crusade against left-wingers whose "Americanism" was suspect. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer
"Fighting Quaker" who led the crusade against communism (to excess) during the big red scare
Criminal syndicalism laws that made mere advocacy of violence to secure social change unlawful
Conservative business ppl used Red scare to ___________.
Convicted 1921 of murder of Mass. Jury and judge prejudiced because defendants were Italian, atheists, anarchist. Were found guilty because of red scare. Executed.
Mushroom of KKK activity years
Extremist ultraconservative uprising of people who were anti catholic, foreign, black, jewish, communist, pacifist, internationalist, evolutionist, bootlegger, gambling, birth-control etc.
Emergency Quota Act of 1921
3% of people of their nationality living in the US in 1910 were allowed to immigrate into the US in something called the national origins system.
Immigration Act of 1924
Immigration was limited to 2% of ethnic people in the country in 1890. This law also kept all Japanese people out. Canadians and Latin Americans were exempt from restrictions (pivotally ended era of unrestricted immigration).
Ethnic/ language barriers
Unionization efforts failed n the early 1920s because the ___________ caused by the new Immigrants.
An intellectual who championed alternative conceptions of the immigrant role in American society, defended newcomer's right to practice their ancestral customs, vision- the US should provide a protective canopy for ethnic and racial groups to preserve their cultural uniqueness, stressed the preservation of identity, believed pluralism.
An advocate of greater cross-fertilization among immigrants (cosmopolitan interchange) in order to create a trans-nationality in the US.
18th Amendment (+ Volsted Act)
Amendment & law that initiated prohibition. This law was largely opposed by city dwellers (immigrants). People thought that repeatedly violating this law was the best way to get it repealed. It also widened the social gap between the rich (who still had access to alcohol) and the poor (who didn't). It's policing was widely ineffective and led to increased crime.
Graduation rates in the 1920s _________.
Movement that sprung up in the 1920s that charged that Darwinian evolution was destroying faith in God and the Bible and was leading to a moral breakdown of youth in the Jazz age. It culminated in 1925 in what is known as the "Monkey Trial" in which a teacher who told his students about evolution was found guilty & fined. The Fundamentalists, though winning the trial, lost their credibility.
Secretary of Treasury during the Harding administration, this man believed in rapid expansion of capital investment.
A new arm of American commerce that sprung up in the 1920s, this industry was largely founded by Bruce Barton. It was adopted by the sports industry and became a symbol and example of American consumeristic society.
Buying on Credit
An innovative feature of the post WWI economy, this practice accumulated a cloud of debt over the American economy, making it vulnerable to disruptions and eventually led to the Great Depression.
Man who essentially founded the automobile industry by making cars affordable through the use of the assembly line system.
Invented the wireless telegraph in the 1920s which made long distance broadcasting and communication possible. The radio was used from advertising, politics, education, music, culture, and sports.
Organized the birth control movement in the 1920s as part of the sexual revolution.
In the 1920s this new theme of sexual frankness (the major result of the new Freud translation) spread throughout the country and manifested in short skirted "flappers",Jazz, an organized birth control movement, a National women's party, etc.
A flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American involving people like Langston Hughes and Marcus Garvey. It emphasized the "New Negro" as a full citizen and a social equal to whites.
Interwar Period Art
A radical shift in thinking/ideology occurred in the 1920s with the radical ideas of Darwin (Evolution --> unsettled church), Karl Marx (the communist manifesto), Sigmund Freud (subconscious governed actions), and Albert Einstein (relativity). The common theme in all their ideas was that people could not control their fates. This combined with the war led to a general feeling of unsettlement which led to this movement.
The Lost Generation
Post war writers that left a sense of dislocation and alienation. They felt the real America had been lost or distorted. Many (i.e. Ernest Hemmingway) moved away from the US.
This epidemic of 1918 was the most serious epidemic in U.S. history; it infected 20 million Americans, causing more than half a million deaths in the United States. World War I ended and returning troops brought home this virus.
Boston Police Strike
One of thousands of strikes that occurred in 1919 when veterans returning from WWI were competing for jobs. These and about 25 race riots show the heightened tension of the time. This strike brought prominence to Calvin Coolidge.
Women's Vote gained largely due to women's wartime effort. It led to shorter skirts, an increase in contraceptive use, divorce, working women, labor saving devices (i.e. refrigerator, canned goods, etc.), and many other attitude changes.
Muller v. Oregon
Allows law restricting women's work differently from men (protecting women more than men).
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
Reversed Muller v. Oregon
Leopold and Loeb
2 teenage boys that committed murder. "it's not their fault, it's society's." story of modern youth, modern parent...etc. blamed the murder on society, it made them that way. Exemplified the rise of crime in the 20s and the atrocity that lurked under the surface of prosperity of the Consumer Era.
A time period during the 1920s in which prosperity was rampant due to many inventions (i.e. telephone, movies, electricity, etc.) and advertising.
Warren G. Harding
Elected in 1921 (post WWI) , this president though well meaning, was surrounded by political leeches who tainted his presidency with a plethora of scandals. He promised a "return to normalcy". He beleived in laissez-faire. During his presidency progressive reforms were largely crushed.
Esch-Cummins Transportation Act of 1920
Encouraged private consolidation of the railroads and pledge the Interstate Commerce Commission to guarantee their profitability
Merchant Marine Act of 1920
authorized the Shipping Board, which controlled about 1500 vessels, to dispose of much of the hastily built wartime fleet at bargain-basement prices
La Follette Seaman's Act of 1915
Made American shipping unable to thrive in competition with foreigners, who all too often provided their crews with wretched food and starvation wages.
Federal bureau created in 1921 to provide hospitals and services to disabled veterans (i.e vocational training etc.)
Adjusted Compensation Act
1924; veteran Bonus Bill demanded by WWI veterans; every soldier received a paid-up insurance policy due in 20 years; Congress overrode Coolidge's veto
Washington Disarmament Conference
International conference held by Harding in 1921-1922 ; USA, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan agreed on a set amount of tonnage for their Naval fleets (5:5:3 ratio US:UK:Japan - J compensated in 5 Power Naval Treaty)
4 Power Treaty
US, GB, France, Japan, all agree to respect each other's territorial rights in Pacific; uphold Open Door Policy
9 Power Treaty
uphold the Open Door policy in China
Was signed on August 27, 1928 by 62 nations. The pact renounced aggressive war, prohibiting the use of war as "an instrument of national policy" except in matters of self-defence.
Fordney McCumber Tariff
This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. This prevented foreign trade, which hampered the economy since Europe could not pay its debts if it could not trade. This led to other tariff increases around the world.
Charles Forbes, director of the Veterans bureau and a close friend of Harding receives millions of dollars as a result of corruption
Teapot Dome Scandal
A government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921; became symbolic of the scandals of the Harding administration
Became president when Harding died. Tried to clean up scandals. Business prospered and people's wealth increased. Largely hands-off.
Cycle in which farmers were caught when peace brought an end to high prices & foreign buyers. The increased mechanization led to overproduction, the piling up of more dampening surpluses, and thus agricultural depression.
A group of both Democratic and Republican members of Congress from the farming states of the Middle West that pressures the federal government to adopt policies favorable to farmers.
Exempted farmers' marketing cooperatives from anti-trust prosecution.
Dawes Plan of 1924
Charles Dawes rescheduled German reparations & opened the way for further American private loans to Germany. This led to a monetary merry-go-round in which the US lends to Germany, Germany pays Europe, Europe pays US, and so on. The US never did get its money.
President following Coolidge or believed in "rugged individualism", avoidance of foreign entanglements, labor unions, and the radio. 6 months into his presidency the Great Depression hit, killing his popularity and eclipsing his previous success. Though he did more than any other Panic president, it was still not enough and he was beaten by FDR in the next election.
Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929
Designed to help farmers "help themselves", this act set up the Federal Farm Board which was authorized to begin a revolving fund for farmers of $1/2 a bil.
Grain & Cotton Stabilization Corporations
Set up by Hoover to bolster sagging crop prices by buying up surpluses.
Highest protective tariff in US peacetime history (started out to reduce tariff). Reverse the world wide trend towards reasonable tariffs and led US into deeper depression.
Oct. 29 1929 = stock market crash
(gov't) Policies, Overproduction (/underconsumption), Over-expansion (of credit), Europe
POOE Causes of Great Depression
Belief of Hoover which led him to shrink from gov't handouts. He was eventually forced to turn to welfare. He did this by assisting the top level of society hoping that it would trickle down and unemployment (25%) would be relieved (Reconstruction Finance Corporation). He also alloted 2.5 bill public works projects to provide jobs & infrastructure.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
This was an independant agency of the United States government. It granted over 2 billion dollars to the local and state governments. It was charted under the Herbert Hoover administration.
Norris La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act
In 1932 this outlawed antiunion contracts, forbade federal courts from issuing injunctions to restrain strikes, & peaceful protests.
Bonus Expeditionary Force
A self-proclaimed group of more than 20,000 WWI veterans that formed when Congress approved paying $1000 bonus to those who had fought in WWI with payments beginning in 1945 (approx. 20 years later); the "Bonus Army"; marched into DC and camped there, vowing to stay until Congress approved legislation to pay the bonus immediately; proposal voted down by Congress, causing only a small portion of the group to leave; those who remained were driven out of the city under order of Hoover by the police at first and then the Army
Sec. of State Henry I. Stimson declared that US would not recognize any territorial acquisitions achieved by force (in response to Japanese seizure of Manchuria China).
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Democratic candidate who won the 1932 election by a landslide. He refused to uphold any of Hoover's policies with the intent on enacting his own. He pledged a present a "New Deal" (Relief,Recovery,Reform) to the American public.
Group of expert policy advisors who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the Great Depression.
New Deal Programs
Relief, Recovery, Reform
Democratic Congress special New Deal session
America's 1st Woman Cabinet Member
Program in which the AAA set fixed prices, mimicking demand for products. Raised farm income, but increased unemployment.
Dust Bowl Disaster
Drought, Wind, + dry farming = sand storms --> 350,000 refugees fled to CA
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
The Indian "New Deal"; encouraged tribes to preserve their culture and tradition. Promoted by John Collier.
Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO)
Led by John L. Lewis, this union of unskilled workers started off as a branch of the AF of L (later broke). It was extremely successful in sit-in strikes.
Court "Packing" Scandal
Hurt Roosevelt's career when he tried to add a new Supreme court member for every member over seventy who refused to retire. Outraged the public and drastically decreased his popularity.
From 1933-1937, Roosevelt's first term, the economy showed signs of gradually pulling out of its depression, but in the winter of 1937, the economy experienced a backward slide and entered into a recessionary period. (Causes- gov policy, new social security tax, etc.)
The economic theories of John Maynard Keynes who advocated government monetary and fiscal programs intended to stimulate business activity and increase employment. Planned deficit spending.
London Economic Conference
1933: International Conference that hoped to achieve exchange rate stabilization. Roosevelt, unwilling to sacrifice the possibility to domestic recovery for international cooperation, took US out, effectively ending the conference. This showed the persistence of American Isolationism.
Tydings-McDuff Act of 1934
Granted the Philippines independence after a 12 year period of economic & political learning. Kept US naval bases.
In 1933 US formally recognized ________ in the hopes of trade and cultivating a counterweight to Germany & Japan.
imperialism & aggressiveness
Great Depression cooled US _________________, causing the US to renounce armed intervention (Monroe Doctrine Corollary) and adopt a Good Neighbor Policy towards Latin America.
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region.
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934
Designed to lift US export trade and activate the low-tariff polices. Lowered by up to 50% if the other country responded w/ similar reductions. It gained the support of 21 countries by 1939.
Communist Leader of USSR
Fascist Leader of Germany
Fascist Leader of Italy
Johnson Debt Default Act
1934 prevented debt dodging nations from borrowing futher in the US
Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, & 1937
Stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, US citizens were prohibited from doing business with the belligerent.
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The US, exercising neutrality, let the democratic gov't be overthrown by refusing to sell guns to either side of the war. Haunting prelude to WWII isolationism (& how illogical it is).
Policy adopted by the European democracies that led them to give Czechoslovakia to Hitler. Despite promises, he proceeded to take the rest of the country and Poland soon after.
1939: USSR nonaggression treaty w/ Germany (= green-light for war on Poland & Western democracies)
Neutrality Act of 1939
European democracies can buy US war materials on "Cash & Carry" basis (must transport in own ships & pay in cash).
Year that Hitler took Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, and France. The threat of Britain falling led the US to begin war preparations in this year (Conscription law etc.). Also year that Roosevelt wins 3rd term reelection against Wilkie.
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
Pro-War propaganda group
America First Committee
Controversial 1941 law that made America the "arsenal of democracy" by providing supposedly temporary military material assistance to Britain. Economic declaration of war.
Anglo-American declaration that stated the countries aims for the outcome of the war. Stated people of every nation should be free to choose their own form of government and live free of fear and want, disarmament, and a permanent system of general security (UN).
Dec. 7 1941: 3000 casualties when Japan bombed Hawaii effectively wiping out battleship fleet & many aircrafts. 4 Days later declaration of war.