1) The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability
properties of the ________.
A) loop of Henle
B) glomerular filtration membrane
C) collecting duct
D) distal convoluted tubule.
2) Urine passes through the ________.
A) renal hilum to the bladder to the ureter
B) pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra
C) glomerulus to ureter to renal tubule
D) hilus to urethra to bladder
3) A Bowmanʹs capsule does not contain ________.
A) a podocyte
B) a vasa recta
C) a fenestrated capillary
D) an efferent arteriole
4) An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to ________.
A) a decrease in the production of ADH
B) an increase in the production of ADH
C) an increase in the production of aldosterone
D) a decrease in the concentration of the blood plasma
5) The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.
B) simple squamous
C) stratified squamous
D) pseudostratified columnar
6) The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.
A) when the peritubular capillaries are dilated
B) when the pH of the urine decreases
C) by a decrease in the blood pressure
D) when the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10
7) Blood vessels of the renal columns are called ________.
D) cortical radiate
8) Which gland sits atop each kidney?
9) The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
D) cortical radiate
10) The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.
A) has a basement membrane
B) is impermeable to most substances
C) is drained by an efferent arteriole
D) has a blood pressure much lower than other organ systems
11) The descending limb of the loop of Henle ________.
A) is not permeable to water
B) is freely permeable to sodium and urea
C) pulls water by osmosis into the lumen of the tubule
D) contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla
12) Select the correct statement about the ureters.
A) Ureters contain sphincters at the entrance to the bladder to prevent the backflow of urine.
B) The epithelium is stratified squamous like the skin, which allows a great deal of stretch.
C) The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.
D) The ureter is innervated by parasympathetic nerve endings only.
13) The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because ________.
A) it ensures adequate energy for the adrenal glands to operate efficiently
B) it stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
C) it is necessary as a barrier between the adrenal glands and kidneys
D) it produces vitamin D
14) The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.
A) Bowmanʹs capsule and glomerulus
B) the descending loop of Henle
C) the renal pyramid
D) the renal papilla
15) The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is ________.
A) the nephron
B) the loop of Henle
C) Bowmanʹs capsule
D) the basement membrane of the capillaries
16) The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for ________.
A) the secretion of drugs
B) the secretion of acids and ammonia
C) reabsorption of organic molecules, vitamins, and water
D) regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure
17) The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.
A) the design and size of the podocytes
B) the thickness of the capillary endothelium
C) glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
D) the size of the pores in the basement membrane of the capillaries
18) Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters?
A) They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).
B) They are actually an extension of the visceral peritoneum.
C) They are made up of several layers of endothelium.
D) They are made up entirely of muscle tissue because they need to contract in order to transport urine efficiently.
19) The first major branch of the renal artery is ________.
D) cortical radiate
20) Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?
A) The stretching of the bladder wall serves as the trigger.
B) Motor neurons control micturition.
C) The pressure of the fluid in the bladder opens a sphincter and allows the urine to flow by gravity down the urethra.
D) The sympathetic efferents are the predominant system controlling micturition.
21) The filtration membrane includes all except ________.
A) glomerular endothelium
C) renal fascia
D) basement membrane
22) The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
A) active transport
C) solvent drag
D) cotransport with sodium ions
23) Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules ________.
A) is not Tm limited
B) is in the distal convoluted tubule
C) is hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments
D) is completed by the time the loop of Henle is reached
24) The macula densa cells respond to ________.
B) antidiuretic hormone
C) changes in pressure in the tubule
D) changes in solute content of the filtrate
25) Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
26) The fluid in the glomerular (Bowmanʹs) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a
significant amount of ________.
D) plasma protein
27) Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
A) is not reabsorbed by the tubule cells
B) increases the rate of glomerular filtration
C) increases secretion of ADH
D) inhibits the release of ADH
28) The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
A) constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
B) decrease the production of aldosterone
C) decrease arterial blood pressure
D) decrease water absorption
29) A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with
symptoms of polyuria is ________.
A) diabetes mellitus
B) diabetes insipidus
C) diabetic acidosis
30) An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.
31) Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.
1. major calyx 2. minor calyx 3. nephron 4. urethra 5. ureter 6. collecting duct
A) 3, 1, 2, 6, 5, 4
B) 6, 3, 2, 1, 5, 4
C) 2, 1, 3, 6, 5, 4
D) 3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4
32) Select the correct statement about the nephrons.
A) The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.
B) The glomerulus is correctly described as the proximal end of the proximal convoluted tubule.
C) Podocytes are the branching epithelial cells that line the tubules of the nephron.
D) Filtration slits are the pores that give fenestrated capillaries their name.
33) What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?
A) Net filtration would increase above normal.
B) Net filtration would decrease.
C) Filtration would increase in proportion to the increase in capsular pressure.
D) Capsular osmotic pressure would compensate so that their filtration would not change.
34) Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
A) granular cells
B) macula densa
C) podocyte cells
D) mesanglial cells
35) Tubular reabsorption ________.
A) includes substances such as creatinine
B) by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical gradient
C) by passive processes requires ATP to move solutes from the interior of the tubule to the blood
D) is a way for the body to get rid of unwanted waste
36) Which statement is true about urine?
A) Urine is usually slightly alkaline.
B) Urine has an ammonialike odor when fresh.
C) Urine has nitrogenous waste such as urea and uric acid.
D) Urine has a yellow color due to the presence of hemoglobin.
37) Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.
A) facilitated diffusion
B) passive transport
D) secondary active transport
38) While the kidneys process about 180 L of blood-derived fluids daily, the amount that actually leaves the body is ________.
A) 50%, or 90 L
B) all of the 180 L
C) 1%, or 1.8 L
D) 100 L
39) Fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because ________.
A) fetuses do not have any waste to excrete
B) there are no functional nephrons until after birth
C) the placenta allows the motherʹs urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood
D) there is no way a fetus could excrete urine until the seventh month of development
40) Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?
A) Kidney function remains the same throughout life, regardless of age.
B) Only about 3% of older adults have any loss of kidney function.
C) Only obese and diabetic older adults have any kidney dysfunction.
D) Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.
41) The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is ________.
A) the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood
B) the glomerular hydrostatic pressure
C) the capsular hydrostatic pressure
D) the myogenic mechanism
42) If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid ________.
A) will be actively secreted into the filtrate
B) will be completely reabsorbed by the tubule cells
C) will appear in the urine
D) will be reabsorbed by secondary active transport
43) If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
A) The glucose molecule is too large to be filtered out of the blood.
B) Most of the glucose is filtered out of the blood and is not reabsorbed in the convoluted tubules.
C) Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.
D) The clearance value of glucose is relatively high in a healthy adult
44) Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.
A) relative permeability of the distal tubule to water
B) impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
C) transport of sodium and chloride ions out of the descending loop of Henle
D) the presence of ADH
45) As the renal artery approaches the kidney, it branches to supply the renal tissue. Place the following in correct sequence starting from the renal artery.
1. segmental 2. cortical radiate 3. arcuate 4. interlobar
A) 1, 4, 3, 2
B) 3, 1, 4, 2
C) 1, 2, 3, 4
D) 1, 4, 2, 3
46) In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle ________.
A) the thin segment is freely permeable to water
B) the thick segment is permeable to water
C) the thin segment is not permeable to sodium and chloride
D) the thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption
47) Select the correct statement about urinary system development.
A) Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.
B) The metanephric ducts will become the urethras.
C) The pronephros (first tubule system) develops during the tenth week of gestation.
D) The mesonephros will develop into the kidneys.
48) The disruption in homeostasis known as pyelitis is ________.
A) a virus that appears only in children because of poor hygiene
B) the aftermath of a severe upper respiratory infection
C) an infection of the renal pelvis and calyces
D) more prevalent in the elderly
49) Which statement is correct?
A) Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.
B) Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein.
C) Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine.
D) The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of the blood.
The glomerular filtration rate is approximately 350 ml/min.
The functional unit of the kidney is the renal column.
The ureter transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
The terminal portion of the urinary system is the urethra.
The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal.
The entire responsibility for urine formation lies with the nephron.
Urine is 95% water by volume.
The act of emptying the bladder is called voiding.
Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.
In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts are relatively impermeable to water.
The collecting duct is impermeable to water in the presence of ADH.
The urethra contains an internal sphincter of smooth muscle.
Angiotensin II is a substance made by the body to lower blood pressure during stress.
Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate.
Blood pressure in the renal glomerulus is lower than in most parts of the body in order to conserve body water.
The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct.
Major calyces are large branches of the renal column.
Urea is reabsorbed in the loop of Henle.
Ureters, like the urethra, are lined only with transitional epithelium.
Incontinence is the inability to control voluntary micturition.
The myogenic mechanism reflects the tendency of vascular smooth muscle to stretch.
An excessive urine output is called anuria.
Tubular secretion is effective in controlling blood pH.
The trigone is so named because of the shape of the urinary bladder.
Atrial naturetic factor inhibits sodium reabsorption.
Particles smaller than 3 nanometers are passed into the filtrate.
The macula densa cells are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in the urea content of the filtrate.
Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer.
Obligatory water reabsorption involves the movement of water along an osmotic gradient.
Having a kinked ureter is called renal ptosis.
The kidney consumes about 15% of all oxygen used by the body at rest.