Limited English Proficiency (LEP)
individuals who are proficient in their native language but not in English; assessment and intervention should be conducted in the native language...it's the law
shared framework of meanings within which a population shapes its way of life; each culture has a unique outlook; shaped by history, societal roles, religion, rules for interaction, family, education, etc.
requires recognition of one's own culture and examination of cultural notions held as "truths";
sequential bilingual learners
the first language reaches a certain level of maturity before acquisition of the second language begins
simultaneous bilingual learners
both languages are learned at the same time
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
difference between a child's current performance on a task and the amount of guided assistance needed by the child to be successful; dynamic assessment is based on this
assessment based on realistic demands of the child's communication context, such as the classroom
free conversation sampling
sample in which the child is allowed to talk freely about whatever they wish
can be addressed by ensuring spontaneity and by collecting samples under a variety of conditions
do not elicit spontaneous everyday speech; example: "Tell me about this picture" or "Explain the rules of Monopoly"
the amount of adult manipulating of materials and evoking of particular utterances
the familiarity of the overall task and materials
linguistic and nonlinguistic patterns that accompany routines, such as "How are you? --- Fine, thanks. How are you?"
provide mutually understood and conventionalized interactions; partner provides order for the child, who, in turn, depends on the partner's cuing
comes from using real communication contests in which the participants convey real information
the intentions of each utterance
answering a question or following a request for action
the SLP asks the child a variety of questions while engaged in play and notes the type of question and the expected response; Example: "Who is that?"
the SLP leaves and reenters the situation, calls on the telephone, etc. to elicit greetings
expressing feelings function
the SLP models feeling-type responses throughout the play interaction; toys are described as having certain feelings and the child is asked to help; Example: "Oh, Big Bird is sad. Can you talk to him and make him feel better?"
the SLP poses a physical problem for the child and the child proposes a solution to the problem; Example: "How can we get the bird out of the cage?"
making choices function
the SLP presents the child with alternatives such as "Would you rather have juice or water?"
In sequential activities or book reading, an SLP can ponder, "I wonder what will happen next."
the SLP can put away toys or snacks before the child is finished; when the child requests an item the SLP can hand him something other than what was requested.
the SLP attempts to solve a problem, such as "I wonder what we did wrong?"
includes declaring/citing, detailing, and naming/labeling; all are spontaneous and can be modeled by the clinician, but not cued
the SLP should note occasions when a child responds to the content of what he or she has said without being required to do so; this behavior is one of the mainstays of conversation as each speaker builds on the comment of the previous speaker
the SLP should note the amount of repetition of self and of the partner; can take the form of empty comments in a conversation in which the child adds no new information
while engaged in an activity, a child spontaneously comments on the present action; Example "car goes up the ramp"
spontaneous response from the child that describes an object; Example: "I'll take the little truck"
child spontaneously names an object; Example: "Look. A balloon."
requesting assistance function
the SLP presents interesting toys in a way that requires adult help to open or use; can be modeled, but should be spontaneous on the child's part
requesting clarification function
can be elicited when the SLP mumbles or makes an inaccurate statement
requesting information function
the SLP puts unknown objects in front of the child and asks her to label them. If the child labels incorrectly, the SLP says "No. How can you ask what it's called?"
requesting objects function
the SLP puts enticing objects or edibles just out of the child's reach
requesting permission function
the SLP has a box with an object in it and peeks into the box to tell the object that it can come out and play if someone wants to play with it
internal organization of discourse
recognizable pattern of a conversation
social organization of discourse
can be assessed within familiar activities that provide a scaffolding or structure for dialogue
describe relationships between objects in the context and might
include directing others to perform a task or describing entities by location, size,
shape, or color
describe changes over time, as in narration
opinion-expressing tasks, such as stating or justifying a position
systematic analysis of language transcripts (SALT)
a computerized analysis system that requires a consistent transcription format
focused exclusively on the utterance of sentence as the unit of analysis; but by analyzing only at utterance level, many of the child's language skills may be missed
the style of talking, which varies for each situation
how the child moves from one conversational style to another
move from one style or register to another
in children with LEP, a combination of L1 and L2 rules, which creates a sort of "hybrid" of the two
shifting from one language to another within and/or across different utterances
the ability of a speaker to select and verbally identify the attributes of an entity in such a way that the listener can identify the entity accurately
directions, explanations, descriptions
3 aspects of referential communication
a speaker's assumptions about the context and about the listener's knowledge that modify the manner and content of the speaker's utterances
can take several forms; includes empty phrases, repeated words or phrases, personal value judgments about the stimulus ("That's pretty dumb")
linguistic elements that must be interpreted from the perspective of the speaker in order to be understood as the speaker intended
the referential point shifts as speakers change
referents are coded by their distance from the speaker
specific referents that are marked by the definite article 'the'
nonspecific referents that are marked by the indefinite articles 'a/an'
how language comes together
the connection of phrases, clauses, and sentences through the use of such conjunctions as and, because, and if
linguistic device used continuously in conversation to keep information flowing and to designate new and old information
establishes reference clearly, usually at the end of the sentence
establishes reference clearly at the beginning of the sentence, usually a pronoun
process in which redundant information is omitted
words used to connect thoughts, such as and, then, so, and therefore
can be used to negate or correct the message of a conversational partner
an entire conversation (which includes more than one topic) or portion of it that includes one topic
speech addresses explicitly to and adapted for a listener; characterized by explicitness and clarity, repairs of breakdowns, and an obligation for a listener to respond
speech not addressed explicitly to a listener, and the listener has no obligation to respond; usually for the speaker's own enjoyment and often consists of asocial monologues
negotiation process that begins with one partner introducing a topic; the other partner agrees to adopt that topic by commenting on it, disagrees by changing the topic, or ends the conversation
responses relatedness to the preceding utterance
words that maintain the conversation and keep it going
devices that maintain the conversation but add little, if any, new information; Examples: uh-huh, yeah, okay
semantically contingent utterance
relates to or reflects the meaning of the prior utterance
maintains the topic of the previous utterance and adds to it in some way
a remark that does not maintain the topic of the previous utterance
utterances spoken as sequential behaviors by the same speaker
an utterance or turn of one partner followed by an
utterance or turn of the other
analyzed in all turns after topic initiation; each turn analyzed on the basis of the continuous discontinuous nature of the turn and its informativeness
response that continues the conversation, such as responses to questions or requests, acknowledgments, appropriate emotional responses, and request for repair
response that are not linked to the current topic
full conversational turn
includes an acknowledgment of the preceding utterance, a contribution by the present speaker, and an indication that the turn is to be shifted
occurs when no new information is added to the conversation and the topic is not changed
confusion within the conversation that needs repair in order for communication to continue
provides valuable information about communication breakdowns; may be spontaneous or in response to a request for repair
consistent maternal responsiveness
teaches children that their responses and behavior have a predictable effect
language segments that disrupt, confuse, and slow movement of the conversation; can include silent pauses, fillers, repetitions, and revisions
perseverative patterns of communicating
these behaviors can skew the data or allow only one type of intention; Example: parent constantly quizzing the child to name pictures in a book
type-token ratio (TTR)
the ratio of the number of different words to the total number of words
casual manner of spontaneous conversation among peers that is important for adolescents; when used appropriately, it establishes a group identity by separating adolescents from children and adults
consists of words primarily used in common academic contexts; this is needed to achieve academic success
each word in a language is related to other words through word associations, synonyms, antonyms, and homonyms; these associations reflect the child's underlying cognitive organization
small, frequently used words that may be misunderstood by children with LI and LEP; used to mark location, time, or manner
Example: The cat is chased by the dog; children with LI exhibit difficulty with these sentences and may interpret them in a reverse manner
metaphors, similes, idioms, proverbs, jokes, and puns
word finding difficulties
impaired ability to generate a specific word that is evoked by a situation, stimulus, sentence context, or conversation
words the child is unable to retrieve
variables related to the word; include the frequency of occurrence of the world, familiarity with the word, age of acquisition, category, and degree of abstractness
variables related to the context; include syntactic requirements, type of stimulus and manner of presentation, priming, and use of categories
Mean Length of Utterance (MLU)
average length in morphemes of a speaker's utterances
Mean Syntactic Length (MSL)
mean length in words of all utterances of two words or more that have some internal grammar; eliminates all one word answers and correlates more strongly with age than MLU does
T-units (minimal terminal units)
consists of one main clause plus any attached or embedded subordinate clause or non-clausal structure; shifts the unit of measure from the utterance to the sentence in its shortest allowable form
similar to T-units but also include incomplete sentences in answer to questions
percentage correct value
determined by dividing the number of correct appearances by the total number of obligatory contexts
suffixes such as plural -s and past-tense -ed
suffixes that are used to change word classes, as I adding -er to a verb such as teach to create the noun teacher
verb relationship in which the verb cannot take an object, as in she walks
verb relationship in which the verb can take an object, as in to her
verb relationship in which consists of the copula (to be) plus a complement of a noun, adjective, or adverb, as in they are students, they are young, or they are late
used to describe the temporal relationships between events; Example: walking to indicate an activity that is ongoing
modal auxiliary verbs
used to express the speaker' attitude; Examples: can, could, will, should, and must
statements, such as "He likes ice cream."
commands, such as "Eat your dinner"; the subject, you, is understood
three types of questions, including yes/no, wh-, and tag
statements with question tags attached, such as "She's lovely, isn't she?"
group of related words that does not contain a subject and a verb
computer-assisted language analysis (CLA)
computer program that provides the SLP with a quick, efficient, standard analysis routine