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Growth Hormone
Ant Pituitary

Stimulus:
Target: skeletal muscle cells; bone
Effects: growth, protein production, breakdown of fat for energy
Hypo: progeria (rare, severe); pituitary dwarfism in children
Hyper: gigantism in children; acromegaly in adults

Prolactin
Ant Pituitary

Stimulus: releasing hormone
Target: breast-secretory tissue (mammary gland)
Effects: milk production following childbirth
Hypo: poor milk production in women
Hyper: inappropriate milk production; impotence in males (males produce milk)

FSH Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Ant Pituitary

Stimulus: releasing hormone
Target: ovaries and testes
Effects: stimulates sperm production; eggs ready for ovulation; regulates hormonal activity
Hypo: infertility; failure of sexual maturation

Lutenizing Hormone
Ant Pituitary

Stimulus: releasing hormone
Target: ovaries and testes
Effects: stimulates sperm production, triggers ovulation
Hypo: infertility

TSH Thryoid Stimulating Hormone (Thyrotropic)
Ant Pituitary

Stimulus: releasing hormone
Target: thyroid gland
Effects: stimulates growth and thyroid activity
Hypo: cretinism in children: mental retardation, childlike dwarfism
myxedema in adults: low metabolic rate, obesity, sluggishness
goiters: due to lack of iodine
Hyper: Graves's disease: elevated metabolic rate nervousness, weight loss; exopthalamus

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Ant Pituitary

Stimulus: releasing hormone
Target: adrenal cortex
Effects: regulates activity of adrenal cortex
Hypo: rare
Hyper: Cushing's disease: hyperglycemia, loss of muscle and bone protein, water and salt retention, buffalo hump

Oxytocin
Post Pituitary

Stimulus: impulses from hypothalamic neurons responding to uterine stretching and suckling
Target: uterus; mammary glands
Effects: stimulates uterine contractions; initiates milk ejection from breast; initiates labor

Antidiuretic Hormone
Post Pituitary

Stimulus: stimulated by impulses from hypothalamic neurons responding to changes in blood volume
Target: kidneys
Effects: stimulates kidney tubule cells to reabsorb water; decrease urine output; increase blood volume
Hypo: diabetes insipidus, high urine output, intense thirst
Hyper: syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion--water retention, weight gain; high blood pressure due to vasoconstriction

Thyroid Hormone (Thyroxine)
Thyroid

Stimulus: TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
Target: virtually every cell except brain, spleen, testes, and uterus
Effects: controls rate at which glucose is oxidized or used as body heat and chem energy; maintain blood pressure; regulate tissue growth and development; increases basal metabolic rate and body heat production
Hypo: cretinism: mental retardation, childlike dwarfism, myxedemia: low metabolic rate, obesity, sluggishness
Hyper: Grave's disease: elevated metabolic rate nervousness, weight loss; exopthalamus

Calcitonin
Thyroid

Stimulus: high blood levels of calcium
Target: bone tissue
Effects: causes deposition of Calcium into bone; inhibits osteoclasts, antagonist to PTH (parathyroid), lowers blood calcium levels
Hypo: weakening of bone tissue
Hyper: problems with muscle contraction

Parathyroid Hormone
Parathyroid

Stimulus: decreased Calcium levels in blood
Target: bone tissue, kidneys, intestines
Effects: stimulates osteoclasts to remove calcium; stimulate kidneys and intestines to absorb more Calcium; antagonist to calcitonin
Hypo: uncontrolled muscle spasms, can be fatal (tetanus)
Hyper: massive bone destruction

Mineralcorticoid (ALDOSTERONE)
adrenal cortex

Stimulus: decreased blood volume; increase in potassium or decrease in sodium
Target: kidneys
Effects: regulate water and electrolyte balance; decrease in potassium or increase in sodium
Hypo: Addison's disease: weight loss, severe dehydration, hypotension
Hyper: Aldosteronism
w/Na: hypertension, edema
w/K: neurons nonresponsive, muscle weakness

Glucocorticoid (CORTISONE AND CORTISOL)
adrenal cortex

Stimulus: ACTH adrenocorticotropic
Target: body cells
Effects: hyperglycemia; promote gluconeogenesis; resist LONG TERM STRESSORS; stimulate protein catabolism; mobilize fats for energy metabolism
Hypo: Addison's disease: weight loss, severe dehydration, hypotension
Hyper: Cushing's disease: hyperglycemia, loss of muscle and bone protein, water and salt retention, buffalo hump

Sex Hormones
adrenal cortex

Stimulus: ACTH (adrenocorticotropic)
Target: ovaries, testes
Hyper: androgenital syndrome in females (masculine secondary sex characteristics in females)

Epinephrine/norepinephrine
adrenal MEDULLA

Stimulus: sympathetic nervous system
Target: sympathetic nervous system target organs
Effects: Epi: increase heart rate and metabolic rate
Norep: increase blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction
Hyper: hypertension; prolonged fight or flight response

Insulin
pancreas

Stimulus: elevated blood sugar levels
Target: liver, tissue cells
Effects: lower blood sugar levels; synthesize glucogen, increase uptake of glucose in cells (antagonist is glucagon)
Hypo: diabetes mellitus, cells lack glucose, high urine output, excessive thirst
Hyper: low blood sugar, anxiety, weakness, disorientation, unconsciousness with an overdose of insulin

Glucagon
pancreas

Stimulus: LOW glucose levels in blood
Target: liver cells
Effects: glucogeogesis breakdown of glucogen into glucose; blood sugar levels rise
Hypo: low blood sugar (hypoglycemic
Hyper: symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

Melatonin
pineal

Stimulus: darkness/duration of daylight
Target: brain and body cells
Effects: increased activity at night for sleep, decreased during the day

Thymosin
thymus gland

Stimulus: development
Target: T-lymphocyte cells
Effects: development of mature T cells and immune response; largest in infants and children
Hypo: failure of immune system

Estrogen
ovaries

Stimulus: FSH, LH (follicle..lutenizing)
Target: reprod organs, breasts
Effects: maturation of reprod organs and appearance of secondary sex charasteristics of females at puberty; prepares breasts to produce milk

Progesterone
ovaries

Stimulus: FSH, LH (follicle...lutenizing...)
Target: reprod organs, breasts
Effects: menstrual cycle, preparing breasts to produce milk, maturation of reprod organs and appearance of secondary sex characteristics of females at puberty

Testosterone
Testes

Stimulus: FSH, LH (follicle...lutenizing...)
Target: reprod organs
Effects: sperm productions; maturation of male reproductive organs and appearance

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