Modern Biology

36 terms by campwallamazu 

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nutrient

a substance or compound that provides nourishment (or food) or raw materials needed for life processes

vitamin

an organic compound that participates in biochemical reactions and that builds various molecules in the body

mineral

a natural, usually inorganic solid that has a characteristic chemical composition, an orderly internal structure, and a characteristic set of physical properties

dehydration

condition resulting from excessive water loss

digestion

the breaking down of food into chemical substances that can be used for energy

gastrointestinal tract

the digestive tract from the mouth to the anus, including the stomach and intestines

saliva

the watery fluid that is secreted by the salivary glands of the mouth, that softens and moistens food, and that begins digestion

pharynx

in flatworms, the muscular tube that leads from the mouth to the gastrovascular cavity; in animals with a digestive tract, the passage from the mouth to the larynx and esophagus

epiglottis

a structure that hangs at the entrance of the larynx and prevents food from entering the larynx and the trachea while swallowing

peristalsis

the series of rhythmic muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract

gastric fluid

a liquid secreted by gastric glands in the stomach

ulcer

a lesion of the surface of the skin or a mucous membrane; sometimes occurs in the digestive system

cardiac sphincter

a circular muscle located between the esophagus and the stomach

chyme

the mixture formed in the stomach from digested food particles and gastric fluid

pyloric sphincter

the circular muscle that controls the flow of chyme from the stomach to the small intestine

gallbladder

a sac-shaped organ that stores bile produced by the liver

villus

one of the many tiny projections from the cells in the lining of the small intestine; increases the surface area of the lining for absorption

colon

a section of the large intestine

excretion

the process of eliminating metabolic wastes

renal cortex

the outermost portion of the kidney, makes up about a third of the kidney's tissue mass

renal medulla

the inner two-thirds of the kidney

renal pelvis

a funnel-shaped structure in the center of the kidney

urea

the principal nitrogenous product of the metabolism of proteins that forms in the liver from amino acids and from compounds of ammonia and that is found in urine and other body fluids

ammonia

a colorless gas that has an alkaline reaction in water; forms in nature as an end product of animal metabolism (formula, NH3)

urine

the liquid excreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder, and passed through the urethra to the outside of the body

nephron

the functional unit of the kidney

Bowman's capsule

a tight ball of capillaries that retains cells and large molecules in the blood and passes wastes dissolved in water

glomerulus

a cluster of capillaries that is enclosed in a Bowman's capsule in a nephron of the kidney, where blood is filtered

renal tubule

the long, tubular portion of a nephron that produces and that takes urine to the renal pelvis of a kidney

filtration

the process of separating dissolved substances, such as impurities in the blood by passing them through a porous material; occurs between the glomerulus and the Bowman's capsule in the nephrons of a kidney

reabsorption

the process in the kidneys by which materials return to the blood from the nephrons

secretion

the process by which the glands of the body release their substances; a substance produced by a gland

loop of Henle

in the kidney, the long, U-shaped part of a nephron that reabsorbs water and salts from the urine collected by the glomerulus

ureter

one of the two narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder

urinary bladder

a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine

urethra

the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

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