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Plasma Membrane

A thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell. Double layer of phosolipids and embedded proteins. Forms an important barrier between the cell and it's external environment.

Prokaryotic cells lack:

internal compartmentalization, membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles.

Prokaryotic cell

a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles.

Cell Theory

idea that all living things 1. are composed of cells, 2. cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and 3. new cells are produced from existing cells

Proteasome

A molecular machine that degrades protein.

If a solute crosses a membrane from a region of high solubility to region of low concentration without the aid of a transport protein, the process is called:

Passive Diffusion

Passive diffusion

The movement of substances into or out of cells without the expenditure of energy or the involvement of transport proteins in the cell membrane. Also called simple diffusion.

Chloroplast

plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments. Utilizes light energy to synthesize glucose.

Amyloplast

plastid that stores starch

Phagocytosis

process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell

The action of white blood cell engulfing a bacteria is an example of:

Phagocytosis

Two classes of transport proteins are:

Channels and Transporters

Cytosol

The region of a eukaryotic cell that is inside the plasma membrane and outside the organelles. Site of many metabolic pathways.

Cytoplasm

Region of the cell contained within the plasma membrane.

Actin Filament

a thin type of protein filament composed of actin proteins that forms part of the cytoskeleton and supports the plasma membrane and plays a key role in cell strength, shape and movement

Microtubule

A type of hollow protein filament composed of tubulin proteins that is part of the cytoskeleton and is important for cell shape, organization, and movement.

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

Chaperone

A protein that keeps other proteins in an unfolded state during process of post-translational sorting.

Lysosome

cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell

Voltage-gated channel

A transmembrane that opens and closes in response to changes in electrical potential.

Osmosis

The movement of water across a semipermeable membrane to balance solute concentration.

Fluid mosaic model

The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of individually inserted protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.

Thylakoid

saclike photosynthetic membrane found in chloroplasts

The process of polypeptide synthesis is called:

Translation.

Translation

The process of synthesizing a specific polypeptide on a ribosome.

True or false: Due to its structure, cholesterol adds to the fluidity of biological membranes.

True.

Which biological macromolecules is most likely to be components of a biomembrane?

Lipids, carbs and proteins.

Types of transport proteins:

Channels
Transporters:
Antiporters
Symporters
Uniporters

Under what conditions would a biomembrane be the most fluid at 37°C?

Short unsaturated fatty acyl tails and no cholesterol

True or False: The movement of water across a semipermeable membrane to balance solute concentrations is called osmosis and requires energy input.

False

Antiporters

Carriers that bind two or more molecules or ions and transport them in opposite directions

Symporters

Carriers that bind two or more molecules or ions and transport them in the same direction

True or False: Existing proton (H+) gradients frequently provide the energy required to move nutrients against their concentration gradients.

True

Vesicles destined for exocytosis are typically derived from:

the Golgi apparatus.

True or False: All cell types are capable of phagocytosis, a form of endocytosis.

False

Endocytosis

process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane

What are the two categories of prokaryotes?

Bacteria and Archea

What are the main differences between plant and animal cells?

Plants have chloroplasts which use light to produce energy. Animal cells don't have cell walls. Plants have one large central vacuole, and animal cells have one more smaller vacuoles. Only animal cells have lysosomes and centrioles. Animal cells have a round irregular shape and plant cells have a fixed rectangular shape.

What does the smooth ER do?

Functions in diverse metabolic processes such as detoxification, carb metabolism, accumulation of calcium ions and synthesis and modification of lipids.

What does the rough ER do?

Protein sorting. Insertion of certain newly made proteins into the ER membrane. Attachment of carbs to proteins and lipids (glycosylation).

Tonoplast

A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell.

Cytoskeleton

Actin filaments and microtubules that provide shape and aid in movement. Protein of the cytoskeleton also act as railroad tracks for movement of materials around the cell and allow movement of cells by flagella.

What does the cytoskeleton do for the cell?

Structure, movement (within the cell or cell movement), spindle fibers that sort and seperate chromosomes. Highway for transport.

Nucleus

a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

Nucleur pore

Passageway for molecules into and out of the nucleus.

Nucleoulus

the area in the nucleus of a cell where ribosomes are produced

Plastid

any of various small particles in the cytoplasm of the cells of plants and some animals containing pigments or starch or oil or protein

Which organic molecules are found in membranes?

Phosphlipids (structure). Proteins (function). Carbohydrates attached to lipids or to proteins

What purposes to Cell membranes serve?

• Organize *delineate areas within the cell.
• Keep desirable components in and undesirable out.
• Semipermeable - allows things to move across it.
• Anchoring of cytoskeleton.
• Cell compartmentalization
• Cell communication/signaling.
• Production of energy intermediates.

Proplastid

The starting point of all plants. A common precursor of the different plastids, including the chloroplast, chromoplast, and amyloplast.

Centrosome

Site where microtubules grow and centrioles are found.

Part of the cell quiz #1

http://home.comcast.net/~cmedelbr/cellpartsreview.htm

Parts of the cell quiz #2

http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP11403

Proteome

an organism's complete set of proteins

Metabolism

The sum of he chemical reactions by which cells produce the materials and utilize the energy that are necessary to sustain life.

What are the three parts that make up the cytoskeleton?

Microtubules, intermediate filaments and actin filaments.

Ribosome

A structure composed of protein and rRNA that provides the site where polypeptide synthesis occurs.

What are the two parts of phospholipids?

Water-loving (hydrophilic) heads and water-hating (hydrophobic) tails.

Phospholipids form in...

A bilayer. Because cells live in a watery enviroment, two layers of phospholipids get together and form a bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads pointing out, and the hydrophobic heads pointing in.

What are the two main types of large-proteins found in membranes? What do they do?

Receptors search the environment for signals like food molecules. Transporters help molecules cross the membrane.

Molecules that are ???? can only cross the membrane with the help of a transport protein.

Hydrophilic.

What kinds of molecules can cross the membrane without a transport protein?

Really small molecules and hydrophobic molecules (Because they are attracted to the hydrophobic layers on the inside of the membrane). I.e carbon dioxide, oxygen and water.

What are the twp types of transport proteins?

Channel proteins and carrier proteins.

Channel proteins

Transport proteins that are folded so they have a channel, or tunnel, through their centers. These channels fill with water so hydrophilic molecules can pass through them and get across the membrane.

Simple diffusion

unassisted diffusion of solutes through the plasma membrane through a channel protein.

Facilitated diffusion

Molecule crossing through the plasma membrane with the aid of a carrier protein.

Osmosis

diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

Passive transport

transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion. From an area of high concentration to low concentration.

Active transport.

Transport of molecules from an area where they are less concentrated to an area where they are more concentrated. In the process, they utilize cellular energy in the form of ATP. The movement of a substance against a gradient.

Group translocation

a special form of active transport that occurs exclusively in prokaryotes, the substance is chemically altered during transport across the membrane.

Endocytosis

process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane. Part of the plasma membrane reaches out and wraps around the molecule to be taken in. Forms a sphere of the membrane called a vesicle.

Vesicle

small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell

Pinocytosis

Type of endocytosis where the cell takes in substances that are dissolved in water.

Phagocytosis

Type of endocytosis where the cell takes in large particles.

Organelles

Little organs. Cellular structures that have a membrane border. Like the organs in your body.

Nucleus

a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

Endomembrane system

A system that makes and transports proteins and lipids. the collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles

Ribosomes are formed in the... then travel to the... to assist with...

Nucleolus.. cytoplasm... protein synthesis

Transport vesicles

Little spheres of membrane that travel around the cell and join with other membranes. Transports molecules created by the cell.

Which endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached to it? What do these ribosomes do?

Rough. They synthesize proteins that are going to be part of membranes or that will leave the cell.

Lumen

Interior of the rough ER

Golgi apparatus

stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum

Integral membrane protein

A protein embedded in the lipid bilayer of a cell. These are typicallly cell surface receptors, channels, or pumps. Transmembrane proteins and lipid-anchored proteins.

Electrochemical gradient

A concentration gradient created by pumping ions into a space surrounded by a membrane that is impermeable to the ions.

A solute crossing a biomembrane from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration with the aid of a transport protein and energy is most accurately referred to as

Facilitated diffusion

Arrange the following molecules in order from most likely to least likely to pass through a biomembrane.
1. glucose
2. carbon dioxide
3. Water
4. K+ (Potassium ion)

2, 3, 1, 4.

A transmembrane channel that opens and closes in response to the direct binding of a molecule to the channel protein itself is referred to as a(n)

Voltage-gated channel.

ligand-gated channel.

A protein pore in the plasma membrane that opens or closes in response to a chemical signal, allowing or blocking the flow of specific ions.

Co-Translational protein sorting vs. Post-translational protein sorting.

...

Liver cells in an alcoholic would be expected to have an ... amount of smooth ER.

Elevated.

glycosylation

Synthesis of carbohydrates that are transferred to protein, is the covalent attachement of a carbohydrate to a lipid (forms glycolipid) or a protein (glycoprotein)

Where does glycosylation take place?

Rough ER and golgi apparatus

What are the three main types of proteins?

Transmembrane proteins, lipid-anchored proteins and peripheral membrane proteins.

What are the types of integral membrane proteins?

Transmembrane proteins and lipid-anchored proteins.

Lipids move ... and ..., but ... does not occur spontaneously.

Laterally, rotationally, flip-flop.

The carbohydrate synthesized in glycolysation can serve as...

a recognition marker or a protective cell coat.

In eukaryotic cells where are most membrane phospholipids synthesized?

At the cytosolic leaflet of the smooth ER membrane. Flippases move some phospholipds to the other leaflet.

Uniporter

A carrier protein that transports a single molecule across the plasma membrane.

Primary active transport vs. secondary active transport

Primary active transport involved pumps that directly use energy to generate a solute gradient. Secondary active transport uses a pre-existing gradient.

Na+/K+-ATPase

an electrogenic ATP-driven pump. Follows a series of steps that direct the pumping of ions across the membrane.

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

A form of endocytosis in which a receptor is specific for a given cargo.

Carbohydrates of the plasma membrane are located...

on the outer surface of the plasma membrane.

Turgor pressure

the pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall

Signal

agent that can influence the properties of cells

Receptor

A cellular protein that recognizes a signaling molecule.

What happens when signals and receptors interact?

the receptor changes shape which changes the way the receptor interacts with cellular factors

Cellular respiration

Adaptation at the cellular level.

What are the five types of cell-signaling?

Direct intercellular signaling
Contact dependent signaling
Autocrine signaling
Paracrine signaling
Endocrine signaling

Direct intercellular signaling

cells adjacent to each other have cell junctions that enable them to pass ions, signal molecules, etc between cell cytosols.

Contact dependent signaling

membrane bound signaling molecule on one cell, while other cells have receptors on their cell to respond to the signaling molecule.

Autocrine signaling

cell secretes signaling molecule that binds to receptors on its own cell surface stimulating a response; important because it allows cells to experience cell density and inhibit further cell growth; high density=high autocrine signaling

Paracrine signaling

specific cell secrets a signaling molecule which does not affect the secreting cell but influences the behavior of target cells in its proximity; short in duration;

Endocrine signaling

occurs over long distances; involves secretion of hormones into blood stream (gases diffusing through air or vascular system in plants)

What are the three stages of cell signaling?

1. Receptor activation. 2. Signal transduction. 3. Cellular response.

Receptor activation

signaling molecule binding to receptor causes receptor shape to change, activating its function.

Signal transduction

activated receptor stimulates proteins that form a signal transduction pathway.

Cellular response

signal transduction pathway affects the functions/amounts of cell proteins, producing a response.

Three common categories of proteins that are controlled by cell signaling:

enzymes, structural proteins, and transcription factors.

Ligand

Signaling molecule

Secondary messengers

...

Apoptosis

programmed cell death

A ligand is most accurately defined as a

signaling molecule that binds to a cellular receptor.enzyme that phosphorylates amino acids of other proteins.

Small or large signaling molecules unable to pass through the plasma membrane must utilize ???? to gain entry.

cell-surface receptors

The small molecules or ions that bind surface receptors in the plasma membrane of a cell are most accurately referred to as

first messengers

Protein kinases

enzymes that transfer a phosphate group from ATP to specific amino acids in a protein.

Receptor Tyrosine Kinases can be found in

animals

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