Ch. 5.Motivation Theories - Organizational Behavior, 11th Edition (Wiley Press)

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Even with great talents many people fail to achieve great things. A good part of the reason lies with unwillingness to work hard enough to achieve high performance.

refers to forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work.

Motivation

theories profile different needs that may motivate individual behavior.

Content

theories examine the thought processes that motivate individual behavior.

Process

theory offers a pyramid of physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self- actualization needs.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

PSSES

Physiological
Safety
Social
Esteem
Self-Actualization

needs in Maslow's hierarchy are esteem and self-actualization.

Higher-order

needs in Maslow's hierarchy are physiological, safety, and social.

Lower-order

theory identifies existence, relatedness, and growth needs.

Alderfer's ERG

needs are desires for physiological and material well- being.

Existence

needs are desires for satisfying

Relatedness

are desires for continued personal growth and development.

Growth and development

( nAch) is the desire to do better, solve problems, or master complex tasks.

Need for achievement

(nAff) is the desire for friendly and warm relations with others

Need for affiliation

(nPower) is the desire to control others and influence their behavior.

Need for power

two-factor theory identifies job context as the source of job dissatisfaction and job content as the source of job satisfaction.

Herzberg's

factors in the job context are sources of job dissatisfaction.

Hygiene

Organizational policies
Quality of supervision
Working conditions
Base wage or salary
Relationships with peers
Relationships with subordinates
Status Security

Hygiene Factors

Achievement
Recognition
Work itself Responsibility
Advancement
Growth

Motivator factors

in the job content are sources of job satisfaction.

Motivator factors

theory posits that people will act to eliminate any felt inequity in the rewards received for their work in comparison with others.

Adams's equity

is an issue of how fair and equitable people view workplace practices.

Organizational justice

3 Dimensions of Organizational Justice

Procedural justice
Distributive justice
Interactional justice

is the degree to which rules are always properly followed to implement policies.

Procedural justice

is the degree to which all people are treated the same under a policy.

Distributive justice

is the degree to which the people are treated with dignity and respect in decisions affecting them.

Interactional justice

theory argues that work motivation is determined by individual beliefs regarding effort/ performance relationships and work outcomes.

Vroom's expectancy

is the probability that work effort will be followed by performance accomplishment.

Expectancy

is the probability that performance will lead to various work outcomes.

Instrumentality

is the value to the individual of various work outcomes.

Valence

are most likely to lead to higher performance when people have the abilities and the feelings of self- efficacy required to accomplish them.

Goals

s, or MBO is a process of joint goal setting between a supervisor and a subordinate.

Management by objective

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