8th grade science electricity

24 terms by kauders

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Electricity

The interaction between electric charges. THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRONS CAUSED BY UNEQUAL AMOUNTS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS. THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRONS.

Static electricity

*A buildup of charges on an object
*Can be done by running and transferring protons or electrons to another object and creating a charge.
*Build up of charges, discharges, and releases electrons
*Discharges can be small
*Example is static cling--built up charges have a charge and cling to other objects

Static discharge

The loss of static electricity as electric charges transfer from one object to another

Electric circuit

A complete, unbroken path through which electric charges can flow

Voltage

*The difference in electric potential energy between two places in a circuit
*Amount of force to push or move an electric current
*Measured in volt (V)
*Voltage source-a device to push an electric source

Electric current

*The continuous flow of electric charges through a material
*Rate which charges pass through a given point
*Takes path of least resistance, measured in Amps
*Example is an electrical device

Ohm's Law

*The law that states that resistance is equal to voltage divided by current
*Resistance=voltage (v)/current (amps or A)
**Increased voltage does not affect the resistance because if you double voltage, the current will double

Resistance

*The measurement of how difficult it is for charges to flow through a material
*The greater resistance, the less current
*Measured in Ohm

Series circuit

*An electric charge with a single path-only one path for current to travel
*Any break causes bulb to go out
*Resistance increases

Parallel circuit

*An electrical circuit with multiple paths-has more than one path for current to travel
*If breaks doesn't mean won't work
*Resistance decreases

Conductor

*A material where charges can easily flow
*Contain loosely bonded electrons that carry the charge and create an electric charge

Amp

*The unit for the rate of current.
*The number of amps describes the amount of charge flowing past a given point each second

Direct current

*Current consisting of charges that flow in only one direction in a circuit
*Known as DC current
*Examples are battery and motor

Alternating current

*Current that can flow in both directions
*Current consisting of charges that move back and forth in a current
*Known as AC

Example of static electricity

Balloon and hair

Example of static discharge

lightning

Examples of conductor

metals, water, acid

Insulator

*Material where charges cannot easily flow
*Electrons bound tightly to atoms and do not move easily
*Used to stop the flow of charges

Examples of insulators

rubber, glass, sand, plastic, wood

equation for voltage

voltage=current*resistance

Units used for resistance

Ohms

Ways to get an electric charge

1)Friction--the transfer of charge from one object to another by rubbing; electrons move from one object to another when rubbing
2)Conduction-The transfer of charge when electrons move from a charged object to another object by direct contact; objects touch another and electrons transfer; electrons transfer to the positive charged object
3)Induction-The transfer of electrons from one part of an object to another part, caused by the electric field of another object, without the two objects touching; electric field attracts or repels electrons

Example of voltage source

Battery, generator

Factors that determine resistance

1) Composition of Material used
Insulators-don't let electrons flow. Higher reistance so charges don't move easily so less current
Conductors-electrons flow. Lower resistance so charges move easily so more current
2) Length of Materials
Longer-more resistance so less current
Shorter-less resistance so more current
3) Diameter-
Thinner-more resistance so less current
Thicker-less resistance so more current
4)Temperature
Hotter or higher temp-more resistance so less current
Cooler or lower temperature-less resistance so more current

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