Chapter 6

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conditioned stimulus

in classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the

conditioned response

when an individual has a phobia, the irrational fear and anxiety that the person experiences is a

unconditioned stimulus

fredrick cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room. the pain of the dental drilling is a

acquisition

the initial stage of learning a response is called

short delayed conditioning

the best temporal arrangement for establishing a new conditioned response is

extinction

the continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. this phenomenon is known as

CS

in order to weaken or eliminate a conditioned response you would present the _____ alone several times

spontaneous recovery

the reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called was

loud noise

in the little albert experiment on conditioned emotion responses, the unconditioned stimulus was the

higher order conditioning

a dog is first conditioned to salivate to a tone. then a light is paired with the tone for a number of trials; finally the light is presented alone, and the dog responds. this procedure is known as

operant conditioning

type of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences

operant conditioning

dillon is four years old and his parents want to teach him how to say please and thank you. they will be most successful in altering dillon's behavior if they use

instrumental learning

operant conditioning is another name for

shaping

the process of selectively reinforcing responses that are closer and closer approximations of some desired response is called

programming

the technique used to teach animals complex tricks, such as teaching pigeons to play ping pong is

primary; secondary

food is an example of _____ reinforcer; praise is an example of ______ reinforcer

fixed ratio

marie works in a dress factory where she ears 10 dollars for each three dresses she hems. marie is paid on a _____ schedule.

negative reinforcement

teenage daughter has not cleaned her room yet, you go in and yell at her. she begins to clean up and you stop yelling. this is viewed as

escape learning

nolan learned to drink a cup of coffee whenever he gets a tension headache because drinking coffee makes the pain go away. this is an example of

increases; decreases

negative reinforcement ______ the rate of response; punishment ______ the rate of a response.

model

your younger daughter watched older wash the dishes. later younger one attempts to wash dishes. the older has acted as a

behavior modification

application of operant principles to solve behavior probs is generally known as

token economy

a system for administering symbolic reinforcers that can later be exchanged for "genuine" reinforcers is known as

operant conditioning

classical conditioning-autonomic system; _______ - somatic system.

effect

responses that are followed by satisfying consequences increase in probability. this is a statement of

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