Which of the following is not an effector controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
(cardiac muscle, glands, smooth muscle in blood vessels and in the digestive system)
Compared to a somatic reflex, an autonomic reflex utilizes:
Two motor neurons plus cardiac and smooth muscle and glands as effectors.
Which of the following statements applies to the autonomic nervous system?
The receptor molecules of the ANS may be muscarinic, nicotinic, or adrenergic
What type of nerve would cause the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall to constrict?
Which of the organs listed below is not directly innervated by the autonomic nervous system?
(heart, sweat gland, smooth muscle, salivary gland)
Efferent neurons of the :
ANS utilize two neurons in series to connect the CNS to the effector
Arrange the following in correct sequence:
1- Autonomic ganglia and ganglionic synapse
2- Synapse with target tissues
3- Preganglionic neuron
4- Postganglionic neuron
In the sympathetic division of the ANS:
The preganglionic cell body is located in the lateral horn of the spinal cord
Preganglionic fibers from the thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord are part of the ____ division of the ANS
The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by
Short postganglionic axons near the organs they innervate
Where is the enteric nervous system located?
Which of the following is NOT a type of enteric neuron?
Enteric bipolar neuron
(enteric interneuron, enteric sensory neuron, enteric motor neuron)
True or False: The enteric nervous system can monitor and control digestive functions independently of the CNS.
The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS differ in the:
Length of the preganglionic and postganglionic axons, location of the preganglionic cell bodies, and position of the ganglia where preganglionic and postganglionic neurons synapse
Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the:
Thoracic and lumbar regions
Chain ganglia are part of the:
Sympathetic brance of the ANS
The short connection between a spinal nerve and a sympathetic chain ganglion through which preganglionic neurons pass is called the:
White ramus communicans
Axons exit the sympathetic chain ganglia by all of the following except:
(Spinal nerves, splanchnic nerves, sympathetic nerves, nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla)
Sympathetic preganglionic axons:
Can synapse in either chain or collateral ganglia
Consider the following situation: Sympathetic preganglionic axons enter a sympathetic chain ganglia. In order for these axons to reach collateral ganglia, they must now travel through:
A splanchnic nerve
Sympathetic stimulation of the postganglionic cells of the adrenal medulla causes the release of:
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Parasympathetic ganglia are called ______ ganglia.
The vagus nerve carries parasympathetic impulses to the:
Thoracic and abdominal viscera
Parasympathetic preganglionic axons from the sacral region of the spinal cord course through ____ nerves that innervate the _____.
Pelvic; Lower colon and reproductive glands
Which of the following nerves has parasympathetic axons?
(NOT trigeminal, hypoglossal, spinal accessory, abducens)
Which of the following cranial nerves does NOT carry sympathetic fibers?
(glossopharyngeal, vagus, facial, oculomotor)
Which of the following is NOT a means of parasympathetic innervation of effectors?
(abdominal nerve plexuses, pelvic splanchnic nerves and pelvic nerve plexuses, cranial nerves to the head and neck, vagus nerve and thoracic nerve plexuses)
How does distribution of sympathetic nerves differ from the distribution of parasympathetic nerves?
Spinal nerves contain sympathetic fibers, while cranial nerves contain parasympathetic fibers.
Which of the following neurons is most likely to be adrenergic?
(preganglionic sympathetic, preganglionic parasympathetic, postganglionic parasympathetic, postganglionic somatic motor)
The membranes of all postganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglia have:
Effector cells that respond to acetylcholine release from postganglionic neurons have:
When acetylcholine binds with nicotinic receptors, the response is:
If acetylcholine binds to muscarinic receptors:
G proteins mediate the cell's response.
The two classes of adrenergic receptors are:
Alpha and Beta
Can be activated by the release of epinephrine
When norepinephrine binds to adrenergic receptors:
G proteins mediate the cell's response
When acetylcholine binds to autonomic muscarinic receptors:
Intestinal motility increases
Sympathomimetic agens activate:
Atropine causes the pupil of the eye to dilate by blocking the effect of muscarinic receptors. This means atropine is a:
Parasympathetic blocking agent
Which of the following drugs would be the best choice to use in chronic asthma to dilate the bronchioles?
Beta-adrenergic stimulating agents
(NOT a nicotinic, muscarinic, alpha-adrenergic blocking, ganglionic blocking agent)
Beta-blockers (beta-adrenergic blockins agents) are frequently used to:
Prevent increases in heart rate
Which of the following is NOT a sympathetic effect on the body?
Constriction of the pupil
(Increased coagulation, relaxation of ciliary muscle for far vision, decreased insulin secretion)
Which effector has no innervation with parasympathetic nerves?
(eye, pancreas, heart)
Which of the following is NOT an effect of parasympathetic action?
(increased tear production, increased motility of the intestines, increased gastric secretion)
are integrated somewhere in the CNS
Autonomic reflexes might be integrated in the:
Medula oblongata, spinal cord, hypothalamus
What part of the CNS integrates thoughts and emotions to produce ANS responses?
What part of the brain is in overall control of the ANS?
What type of reflex operates independently of the CNS?
Which of the following occurs when the parasympathetic system is stimulated?
Increased motility of the digestive tract
(NOT increased blood pressure, increased metabolism, increased heart rate, decreased motility of the digestive tract)
True or False: Sympathetic effects are always stimulatory, while parasympathetic effects are always inhibitory.
Which of the following statements is false?
False: Structures receiving dual innervation by the ANS are regulated equally by both divisions.
True-Both divisions of the ANS can produce stimulatory effects.
True-Both divisions cooperate to achieve normal reproductive funvtion.
True- The sympathetic divisions has more influence under conditions of physical activity than does the parasympathetic division.
True- Dual innervation of organs by both divisions of the ANS is not universal.
Which of the following statements is true?
True- The sympathetic division diverges more than the parasympathetic division.
John sees Martha; the pupils of his eyes dilate. It is "love at first sight." What division of the ANS is involved?
Stimulation by the autonomic nervous system results in increased insulin secretion from the pancreas during and after a meal. The following are most likely to be true:
Increased insulin secretion is due to parasympathetic stimulation and acetylcholine agonists will stimulate insulin secretion.
When a person consumes a substantial amount of nicotine, the response:
Both increases parasympathetic responses and increases sympathetic responses.
Acetylcholine will cause the pupil of the eye to constrict. A drug acts on receptors for acetylcholine to cause the pupils of the eye to dilate. Nicotine does not bind to receptors in smooth muscle cells of the iris. Therefore, the drug which causes the pupils to dilate is a:
Muscarinic blocking agent.
The ______ division of the ANS functions mainly to prepare the body for energy-expending, stressful situations.
The ______ division of the ANS functions mainly under ordinary, restful conditions.
The two divisions of the ANS have antagonistic effects on each of the following EXCEPT:
The diameter of the blood vessels in skeletal muscles
(the diameter of bronchioles in the lungs, gastrointestinal peristalsis, heart rate, the eye)
Which of the following is NOT a parasympathetic effect?
Dilation of the bronchioles in the lungs
(Constriction of the pupils of the eye, contraction of the urinary bladder, decreased heart rate, increased gastric secretions)
Which of the following is a sympathetic effect?
Increased heart rate
(NOT Constrictions of the pupils of the eyes, constriction of the bronchioles in the lungs, contraction of the urinary bladder, Increased gastric secretions)
The component of the autonomic reflex arc that detects a change in stimulus is the: