A&P Ch16- ANS

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Which of the following is not an effector controlled by the autonomic nervous system?

Skeletal Muscle(somatic)

(cardiac muscle, glands, smooth muscle in blood vessels and in the digestive system)

Compared to a somatic reflex, an autonomic reflex utilizes:

Two motor neurons plus cardiac and smooth muscle and glands as effectors.

Which of the following statements applies to the autonomic nervous system?

The receptor molecules of the ANS may be muscarinic, nicotinic, or adrenergic

What type of nerve would cause the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall to constrict?

Autonomic nerves

Which of the organs listed below is not directly innervated by the autonomic nervous system?

Skeletal Muscle

(heart, sweat gland, smooth muscle, salivary gland)

Efferent neurons of the :

ANS utilize two neurons in series to connect the CNS to the effector

Arrange the following in correct sequence:
1- Autonomic ganglia and ganglionic synapse
2- Synapse with target tissues
3- Preganglionic neuron
4- Postganglionic neuron

3-1-4-2

In the sympathetic division of the ANS:

The preganglionic cell body is located in the lateral horn of the spinal cord

Preganglionic fibers from the thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord are part of the ____ division of the ANS

Sympathetic

The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by

Short postganglionic axons near the organs they innervate

Where is the enteric nervous system located?

Digestive tract

Which of the following is NOT a type of enteric neuron?

Enteric bipolar neuron

(enteric interneuron, enteric sensory neuron, enteric motor neuron)

True or False: The enteric nervous system can monitor and control digestive functions independently of the CNS.

True

The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS differ in the:

Length of the preganglionic and postganglionic axons, location of the preganglionic cell bodies, and position of the ganglia where preganglionic and postganglionic neurons synapse

Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the:

Thoracic and lumbar regions

Chain ganglia are part of the:

Sympathetic brance of the ANS

The short connection between a spinal nerve and a sympathetic chain ganglion through which preganglionic neurons pass is called the:

White ramus communicans

Axons exit the sympathetic chain ganglia by all of the following except:

Cranial nerves

(Spinal nerves, splanchnic nerves, sympathetic nerves, nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla)

Sympathetic preganglionic axons:

Can synapse in either chain or collateral ganglia

Consider the following situation: Sympathetic preganglionic axons enter a sympathetic chain ganglia. In order for these axons to reach collateral ganglia, they must now travel through:

A splanchnic nerve

Sympathetic stimulation of the postganglionic cells of the adrenal medulla causes the release of:

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

Parasympathetic ganglia are called ______ ganglia.

Terminal

The vagus nerve carries parasympathetic impulses to the:

Thoracic and abdominal viscera

Parasympathetic preganglionic axons from the sacral region of the spinal cord course through ____ nerves that innervate the _____.

Pelvic; Lower colon and reproductive glands

Which of the following nerves has parasympathetic axons?

Facial

(NOT trigeminal, hypoglossal, spinal accessory, abducens)

Which of the following cranial nerves does NOT carry sympathetic fibers?

Hypoglossal

(glossopharyngeal, vagus, facial, oculomotor)

Which of the following is NOT a means of parasympathetic innervation of effectors?

Spinal nerves

(abdominal nerve plexuses, pelvic splanchnic nerves and pelvic nerve plexuses, cranial nerves to the head and neck, vagus nerve and thoracic nerve plexuses)

How does distribution of sympathetic nerves differ from the distribution of parasympathetic nerves?

Spinal nerves contain sympathetic fibers, while cranial nerves contain parasympathetic fibers.

Which of the following neurons is most likely to be adrenergic?

Postganglionic sympathetic

(preganglionic sympathetic, preganglionic parasympathetic, postganglionic parasympathetic, postganglionic somatic motor)

The membranes of all postganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglia have:

Nicotinic receptors

Effector cells that respond to acetylcholine release from postganglionic neurons have:

Muscarinic receptors

When acetylcholine binds with nicotinic receptors, the response is:

Excitatory

If acetylcholine binds to muscarinic receptors:

G proteins mediate the cell's response.

The two classes of adrenergic receptors are:

Alpha and Beta

Adrenergic receptors:

Can be activated by the release of epinephrine

When norepinephrine binds to adrenergic receptors:

G proteins mediate the cell's response

When acetylcholine binds to autonomic muscarinic receptors:

Intestinal motility increases

Sympathomimetic agens activate:

Adrenergic receptors

Atropine causes the pupil of the eye to dilate by blocking the effect of muscarinic receptors. This means atropine is a:

Parasympathetic blocking agent

Which of the following drugs would be the best choice to use in chronic asthma to dilate the bronchioles?

Beta-adrenergic stimulating agents

(NOT a nicotinic, muscarinic, alpha-adrenergic blocking, ganglionic blocking agent)

Beta-blockers (beta-adrenergic blockins agents) are frequently used to:

Prevent increases in heart rate

Which of the following is NOT a sympathetic effect on the body?

Constriction of the pupil

(Increased coagulation, relaxation of ciliary muscle for far vision, decreased insulin secretion)

Which effector has no innervation with parasympathetic nerves?

Blood vessels

(eye, pancreas, heart)

Which of the following is NOT an effect of parasympathetic action?

Increased metabolism

(increased tear production, increased motility of the intestines, increased gastric secretion)

Autonomic reflexes:

are integrated somewhere in the CNS

Autonomic reflexes might be integrated in the:

Medula oblongata, spinal cord, hypothalamus

What part of the CNS integrates thoughts and emotions to produce ANS responses?

Hypothalamus

What part of the brain is in overall control of the ANS?

Hypothalamus

What type of reflex operates independently of the CNS?

Local reflex

Which of the following occurs when the parasympathetic system is stimulated?

Increased motility of the digestive tract

(NOT increased blood pressure, increased metabolism, increased heart rate, decreased motility of the digestive tract)

True or False: Sympathetic effects are always stimulatory, while parasympathetic effects are always inhibitory.

False

Which of the following statements is false?

False: Structures receiving dual innervation by the ANS are regulated equally by both divisions.

True-Both divisions of the ANS can produce stimulatory effects.
True-Both divisions cooperate to achieve normal reproductive funvtion.
True- The sympathetic divisions has more influence under conditions of physical activity than does the parasympathetic division.
True- Dual innervation of organs by both divisions of the ANS is not universal.

Which of the following statements is true?

True- The sympathetic division diverges more than the parasympathetic division.

John sees Martha; the pupils of his eyes dilate. It is "love at first sight." What division of the ANS is involved?

Sympathetic division

Stimulation by the autonomic nervous system results in increased insulin secretion from the pancreas during and after a meal. The following are most likely to be true:

Increased insulin secretion is due to parasympathetic stimulation and acetylcholine agonists will stimulate insulin secretion.

When a person consumes a substantial amount of nicotine, the response:

Both increases parasympathetic responses and increases sympathetic responses.

Acetylcholine will cause the pupil of the eye to constrict. A drug acts on receptors for acetylcholine to cause the pupils of the eye to dilate. Nicotine does not bind to receptors in smooth muscle cells of the iris. Therefore, the drug which causes the pupils to dilate is a:

Muscarinic blocking agent.

The ______ division of the ANS functions mainly to prepare the body for energy-expending, stressful situations.

Sympathetic

The ______ division of the ANS functions mainly under ordinary, restful conditions.

Parasympathetic

The two divisions of the ANS have antagonistic effects on each of the following EXCEPT:

The diameter of the blood vessels in skeletal muscles

(the diameter of bronchioles in the lungs, gastrointestinal peristalsis, heart rate, the eye)

Which of the following is NOT a parasympathetic effect?

Dilation of the bronchioles in the lungs

(Constriction of the pupils of the eye, contraction of the urinary bladder, decreased heart rate, increased gastric secretions)

Which of the following is a sympathetic effect?

Increased heart rate

(NOT Constrictions of the pupils of the eyes, constriction of the bronchioles in the lungs, contraction of the urinary bladder, Increased gastric secretions)

The component of the autonomic reflex arc that detects a change in stimulus is the:

Receptor.

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