Most cells are small because...
large cells don't function as efficiently.
lacks a nucleus and doesn't have an extensive system of internal membranes.
have a nucleus and have an internal membrane-bound compartment.
Why are phospholipids used to build cell membranes?
It controls the permeability from cell water and dissolved substances.
What's the structure of phospholipids?
a sheet of lipids with embedded proteins.
What are lipid bilayers?
form spontaneously whenever a collection of phospholipids placed in water.
What are the constituents of a plasma membrane?
polar region: soluble. non polar region: insoluble.
Cell wall function.
to maintain cell structure.
to surround the cell wall.
protein fibers that are used for locomotion.
short flagellum or "hair"
Constituents of the endomembrane system?
to give rise to the internal membranes found in the cell.
Function of the ER.
to form channels and connections.
Golgi apparatus function.
to form collected stacks called the golgi complex.
contain enzymes that the cell uses to break down macromolecules.
different components to the endomembrane system that are also found in the cell.
What organelles are found in plant or animal cells and vice versa?
mitochondria and chloroplasts.
What are the constituents of the nuclear membrane?
the storage of hereditary information.
What is chromatin?
uncoiled DNA strands that are no longer visible as segments.
What is the function of the nucleolus ?
dark staining region of the nucleus.
What is the function of mitochondria? How about chloroplasts?
mitochondria are basically cellular powerhouses. Chloroplasts are the location for photosynthesis.
What is endosymbiosis?
states that some organelles evolved from a symbiosis.
How are mitochondria inherited from parent to child?
they are dependent on the cells in which they occur, therefore, they cannot be grown free of the cell.
What are different components of the cytoskeleton?
intermediate filament (ropes of intertwined protein), microtubles (hollow tubes that make up the protein tubilin), microfilaments (long slender microfilaments made up of the protein actin).
What is the extracellular matrix? What does it do?
takes the place of the cell wall in animal cells and is comprised by a mixture of proteins secreted by the cell.
What is osmosis?
water moves down its concentration gradient in moving into or out of a cell through a process called osmosis.
engulfing of substances outside of the cell in order to form a vesicle that is brought inside the cell.
discharge brought inside the cell.
What are the three types of transporting molecules across a membrane?
selective diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport.
What are the main two forms of energy?
kinetic and potential.