Third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted but failed to reconcile moderates amoung Shi'is to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problem of succession
Most famous of the Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in regin, death led to civil wars over succession
Regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid Empire under name of sultan; retained Abbasids as figureheads
Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia; staunch Sunnis; ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs from mid-11th century
Series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims; temporarily succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and establishing Christian kingdoms; later used for other purpose such as commercial wars and extermination of heresy
Muslim leader in the last decades of the 12th century; reconquered most of the crusaders outposts for Islam
A Muslim historian; developed concept that dynasties of nomadic conquerors had a cycle of three generations-strong, weak, dissolute
is a collection of poems, originally written in the Persian language and of which there are about a thousand, attributed to Omar Khayyám, a Persian poet, mathematician and astronomer; means "quatrains": verses of four lines.
Written by Firdawsi in late 10th and early 11th centuries; relates history of Persia from creation to the Islamic conquests
Persian poet, one of the greatest figures in classical Persian literature.
was a Persian alchemist, chemist, physician, philosopher and scholar; made fundamental and enduring contributions to the fields of medicine, alchemy, and philosophy, recorded in over 184 books and articles in various fields of science; made numerous advances in medicine through own observations and discoveries.
one of the major figures of Islamic mathematics. He contributed to astronomy, mathematics, physics, medicine and history.
Orthodox religious scholars within Islam; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; incresasingly opposed to non- Islamic ideas and scientific thinking
Brilliant Islamic theologian; struggled to fuse Greek and Quranic traditions; not entirely accepted by ulama
Mystics within Islam; responsible for expansion of Islam to southeastern
Central Asia nomadic peoples; smashed Turko- Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph
Muhammad ibn Qasim
Arab general; conquered Sind in India; declared the region and the Indus valley to be part of Umayyad Empire
Actually an Indian system of numerical notation transported by Arabs to West; central to two scientific revolutions
Descendant of Guptas in India; briefly constructed a loose empire in northern Inda between 616 and 657 C.E.
Muhammad of Ghur
Military commander of Persian extraction who ruled small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of northern India; brought much of Indus valley, Sind, and northwestern Indiaunder his control
Lieutenant of Muhhamad of Ghur; established kingdom in India with capital at Delphi; proclaimed himself Sultan of India
Ritual in India of immolating surviving widows with the bodies of their deceased husbands
Groups dedicated to gods and goddesses; stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the god or goddess who was the object of their veneration; most widely gods were Shiva or Vishnu
One of the most celebrated writers of religious poetry and songs of worship who was a woman
One of the most remarkable mytics; Muslim weaver who played down the significance of religious differences and proclaimed that all could provide a path to spriritual fulfillment
Trading emprie centered on Malacca Straits betwwen Malaya and Sumatra; controlled trade of empire; Buddhist government resistant to Muslim missionaries; fall opened up southeastern Asia to Muslim converison
Portuguese factory or fortifies trade town located on the tip of the Malayan peninsula; traditionally a center for trade amoung the southeastern Asian islands
Most powerful of the trading states on north coast of Java, converted to Islam and served as point of dissemination to other ports
Mahmud of Ghazni
was the ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire from 997 until his death;turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which included modern-day Afghanistan, most of Iran as well as regions of north-west India including modern-day Pakistan;the first ruler to carry the title Sultan, signifying his break from the suzerainty of the Caliph