How many electrons are being donated or accepted in the overall bonding of the molecule
Oxidation number tells what?
Atom loses electrons, oxidation number increases
Oxidation of a molecule consists of?
Atom gains electrons, oxidation number decreases
Reduction consists of?
Does not change
Number of total atoms does/not change?
Atom that loses electrons and gives electrons to another atom thereby reducing it
Reducing agent is?
The reduced atom, accepts electrons
Anode is always the site of oxidation, while the cathode is always the site of reduction
In a galvanic cell what is the trend between anodes and cathods?
Voltage is from the addition of half reactions
How can you find voltage from half reactions?
Reduction half reactions, to find the potential for oxidation half reactions just reverse the sign
When determining voltage which type of half reaction is used typically?
−nFE°, n is # of moles of elecrtons transferred, F is Faraday or the magnitude of the charge of one mole of electrons, E° is cell voltage
Redox reaction in a cell will be spontaneous
If E° is positive, what does that tell us about the reaction?
When should you multiply the potential by a coefficient?
Charge and what reaction is being done. So a positive potential for accepting electrons means you're a good oxidizing agent, a positive potential for losing electrons means you're a good reducing agent
Standard reduction potential tell us whether something is a good oxidizong or reduction agent by its?
The stronger the product is a reducing agent
The more negative the reduction potential
The stronger the reactant is an oxidizing agent
The more positive the reduction potential
Uses outside voltage source to create an electric current that forces non spontaneous redox reactions to occur
Electrolytic cell does what?
Anode is always the site of oxidation, while the cathode is always the site of reduction and electrons always move from anode to cathode
Electrolytic cell description
Anode is positive and cathode is negative for electrolytic cell
Difference between glavanic cell and electrolytic cell?
Amount of chemical change is proportional to the amount of electricity that flows through the cell
Faraday's law of electrolysis?
1) Determine amount of electricity that flowed through 2) Use faraday, f, to convert charge from step 1 to moles of electrons 3) Use stoichiometry of half reactions to finish calculations
Steps of Faraday's law of electrolysis?
E° − (RT/nF)lnQ, Q is reaction equation
Nonstandard conditions voltage E=