Sociology test 1

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study, individual, society, difference

Four component definition of Sociology: systematic _____, _____, _____, consequences of ________

systematic

Sociology: the _________ study of the relationship between the individual and society and of the consequences of difference.

Mills

Who created the idea of the " Sociological imagination"? Wright ______

natural, social

2 sciences discussed in class: _____ and _____

social

Science that sociology is:_______

protestant

Who's most likely to commit suicide according to Dunkheim: catholic or protestant?

large

What is macro sociology: ___ scale

small

Micro sociology is_____ scale

functionalist

One of the three approaches of sociology linked with Durkheim is _______.

conflict

One of the three approaches of sociology linked with Marx _______.

interactionist

One of the three approaches of sociology linked with Goffman is _______.

systematic

Sociologists draw their conclusions about society based on experiences or observations rather than beliefs or the authority of others. This is the definition associated with ______ study.

agency

the freedom people have to choose and to act.

individual

Individuals are the building blocks of society with people constantly choosing what to do next. This is the definition associated with the ______ .

society

______ consists of persistent patterns of relationships and social networks within which we operate. These patterns and relationships are much like a building.

dyads, groups, networks, social

Society can be broken down into segments or levels: _____ , _____, _____, and _______ institutions.

difference

Sociology also looks at how economic, social, and cultural resources are distributed and at the consequences of these patterns. This is the definition associated with the consequence of ______ .

social

______ theory represents sociologists' attempts to tell the stories of our lives but they do so in a particular way. It can start as general and vague.

applied

______ sociology is the use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical application for human behavior and organizations.

clinical

_______ sociology is dedicated to facilitating change by altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions.

direct

Unlike applied sociologists, clinical sociologists take _____ responsibility for implementation and view those with whom they work as their clients.

looking

Practicing sociology is about so much more than a career; it is a way of _______ at the world around us and understanding its complexity and interconnections in a new way.

verb

Sociology is a _____.

heart

At the _____ of sociology is the relationship or interaction between the individual and society.

interdependence

We may like to think that we can make it on our own, but our individualism is made possible by our __________.

engaged

Sociologists are _______with the world, gathering empirical data through systematic research.

problem, review, formulate, collect, conclusion

5 steps in the sociological research process: define the _____, ____ the literature, ______ the hypothesis, select and _____ the design and data, develop the _____.

measurable

An operational definition is to make something abstract into something ______.

independent

An _____ variable causes or influences something.

dependent

The variable that is affected is known as the ________ variable (y) because change in it depends on the influence of the independent variable.

correlation

_________ simply describes a relationship between two variables. It does not imply causality. How it's related.

causation

A cause and effect relationship in which one variable controls the changes in another variable. It caused it to happen.

control

A _______ variable is a factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable.

quantitative

_______research collects and reports data primarily in numerical form. It typically involves statistics. Ex. surveys, content and secondary analysis.

qualitative

_______research relies on what researchers see in the field and naturalistic setting. It uses words. Ex. observation, interviews, experiments.

survey

Most frequently used research method is a ______.

experiment

Most least used research method is an ______.

Ethnography

_________is a form of participant observation and the researcher fully informs his subjects of his presence and purpose.

cultural imperialism

______ _______-to exert their own views on the group being observed.

native

______-become too involved with the group under study

value

______ neutrality-to the objectivity of sociologists in the interpretation of data. Don't let own bias influence results.

effect

Hypotheses are built upon cause-and-______relationships, and researchers who formulate a hypothesis generally suggest how one variable influences or affects another.

sample

Technically speaking, a _______ is a selection from a larger population that is statistically representative of that population.

research ethics

The American Sociological Association (ASA) puts forth the following basic principles: Maintain objectivity and integrity in research, Respect the subject's right to privacy and dignity, Protect subjects from personal harm, Preserve confidentiality, Seek informed consent, Acknowledge research collaboration and assistance, Disclose all sources of financial support are part of something called ____ _____

mores

______ are norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of society, often because they embody the most cherished principles of a people. A type of informal norm.

folkways

_______are norms governing everyday behavior such as etiquette. A type of informal norm.

formal

_____ norms are laws.

informal

_______ norms are generally understood but not precisely recorded (written down). Proper dress is an example

values

_____ are the collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper - or bad, undesirable, and improper - in a culture.

Ethnocentrism

________ refers to the tendency to assume to one's own culture and way of life represents the norm or is superior to all others - they are normal.

cultural

_______ relativism refers to viewing people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture. It places a priority on understanding other cultures.

culture

_______ is something we create - it's fluid and can be changed. It consists of the totality of our shared language, knowledge, material objects, and behavior. It's a survival skill.

Sanctions

______ are penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm.

transmission

Were it not for the social __________ of culture, each generation would have to start from scratch, reinventing not just the wheel but all other forms of culture as well.

cultural universals

________ ________refer to common practices and beliefs shared by all societies. Examples include sports, cooking, funeral ceremonies, medicine, marriage, and sexual restrictions.

Material

_____ culture refers to the physical or technological aspects of our daily lives, including food, houses, factories, and raw materials. It can be seen as the things we make and what we make them with. Ex. technology

Non-material

________ culture refers to the ways of using material objects and to customs, ideas, expressions, beliefs, knowledge, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication.

everywhere

Even for those who live close to nature, material culture is _______.

dominant

_______ ideology is a set of cultural beliefs and practices that legitimate existing powerful social, economic, and political interests.

comte

August ____ cam up with the word sociology in 1838.

macro

Functionalist is society are structured to maintain its stability and conflict is perspective emphasizes the distribution of power and the allocation of resources in society are part of _____ sociology.

micro

Interactionist is perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole is part of ____ sociology.

diffusion

Spread of culture is called _______.

language

most powerful is _______. Lets us work with collection action.

cultural lag

situation in which some aspects of the culture change less rapidly, or lag behind, other aspects of the same culture

norms

rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members. Put in place to uphold values.

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