surface layer of the earth, composed of mineral and organic materials, air, and water
northernmost vegetation region, found in areas too cold for trees to grow. Bushes, grasses, mosses, and similar plants dominate.
removal of minerals from soil by water as it moves downward through the soil
area where the characteristics of one region gradually change into those of another
ground that does not completely thaw in the summer
dark, upper layer of soil made up of partially decayed plant material
process by which, in dry climates, water carrying dissolved minerals moves upward through the soil. At the surface, the water evaporates, leaving the minerals behind.
boreal and taiga forest
coniferous (needle-leaved) forest that stretches from east to west across Canada, south of the tundra but north of the grasslands and mixed forest
tree with cones and often needlelike leaves: evergreen
tree which sheds its leaves annually in the fall (broad-leaved tree)
vegetation region that contains both coniferous and deciduous trees. It is a transition zone between the deciduous forest and the boreal forest.
type of vegetation in the Canadian prairie provinces where very little precipitation causes grasses to be shorter than in slightly wetter long-grass prairie areas
type of vegetation in the Canadian prairie provinces where higher precipitations levels cause grasses to grow longer than in drier, short-grass prairie areas
region based on its ecological characteristics