Chapter 7 Study Guide Photosynthesis

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These flash cards cover Mader Biology 10th edition Chapter 7 covering Photosynthesis.

Why are plants green?
A. They absorb only green wavelengths of light.
B. They absorb only yellow and blue wavelengths of light.
C. They reflect nearly all wavelengths of light.
D. They reflect green wavelengths of light and absorb blue and red light.
E. They reflect yellow and blue wavelengths of light.

D. They reflect green wavelengths of light and absorb blue and red light.

What are the products of photosynthesis?
A. water and carbon dioxide
B. water and oxygen
C. oxygen and carbohydrate
D. carbohydrate and water

C. oxygen and carbohydrate

What organisms are capable of photosynthesis?
A. plants only
B. plants and algae only
C. plants and some bacteria only
D. plants, algae, and some bacteria

D. plants, algae, and some bacteria

Which of these is NOT a major photosynthetic pigment in plants?
A. chlorophyll a
B. chlorophyll b
C. chlorophyll c
D. carotenoid pigments

C. chlorophyll c

If plants were only able to undergo the cyclic pathway, which of the following would NOT be true?
A. Plants would not produce oxygen.
B. Carbohydrate could still be produced but in much smaller quantities.
C. More NADPH would be produced during the cyclic electron pathway.
D. ATP production would decrease due to a smaller amount of H+ being available.

C. More NADPH would be produced during the cyclic electron pathway.

Photorespiration occurs mainly in:
A. C3 plants.
B. C4 plants.
C. CAM plants.
D. all of the above.

A. C3 plants.

To what does the term stroma refer?
A. the double membrane of the chloroplast
B. a flattened disk or sac in the chloroplast
C. a stack of thylakoid membrane structures
D. the central fluid-filled space of the chloroplast
E. the cytochrome system in the membranes of the thylakoids

D. the central fluid-filled space of the chloroplast

To what does the term grana refer?
A. the double membrane of the chloroplast
B. a flattened disk or sac in the chloroplast
C. a stack of thylakoid membrane structures
D. the central fluid-filled space of the chloroplast
E. the cytochrome system in the membranes of the thylakoids

C. a stack of thylakoid membrane structures

Which statement is NOT true about photosystems?
A. Photosystem I passes electrons on to Photosystem II.
B. Each photosystem contains numerous pigment molecules that act as antennas to capture light.
C. Photosystem I contains a reaction center molecule that loses electrons which are then replaced by electrons from water.
D. Electrons in the reaction center molecule are excited by absorbed solar energy and are passed along to an acceptor molecule.

A. Photosystem I passes electrons on to Photosystem II.

Protons (H+) accumulate in the thylakoid space during electron transport between photosystems I and II. The excess of protons in the thylakoid space
A. enters the photorespiration pathway.
B. converts NADP to NADPH and generates ATP in the process.
C. is small enough to diffuse back out through the lipid bilayer.
D. raises the pH of the space until the processes stop.
E. moves from the thylakoid space to the stroma through an ATP synthase complex channel that generates ATP.

E. moves from the thylakoid space to the stroma through an ATP synthase complex channel that generates ATP.

Which statement is NOT true about the cyclic electron pathway?
A. It produces ATP.
B. It involves Photosystem I.
C. It produces NADPH.
D. Electrons lost from Photosystem I eventually return to Photosystem I.

C. It produces NADPH.

Which statement is NOT true about the noncyclic electron pathway?
A. Electrons are boosted to higher energy level in Photosystem I.
B. Sunlight excites electrons in Photosystem II.
C. It produces ATP.
D. It produces NADPH.
E. It produces carbohydrates through carbon dioxide fixation.

E. It produces carbohydrates through carbon dioxide fixation.

Which is most closely associated with the Calvin cycle?
A. ATP production
B. oxygen production
C. carbon dioxide fixation
D. carbon dioxide production
E. removal of electrons from water for passage through an electron transport system

C. carbon dioxide fixation

_______ is a product of the Calvin Cycle that is used to form glucose phosphate, amino acids or fatty acids.
A. ATP.
B. ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP).
C. glyceraldehyde-3-phospate (G3P).
D. PEP carboxylase (PEPcase).
E. carbon dioxide.

C. glyceraldehyde-3-phospate (G3P).

When the stomata in a leaf close during the day, then
A. carbon dioxide in the air spaces in the leaf decreases.
B. oxygen in the air spaces in the leaf increases.
C. C3 plants carry on photorespiration, using O2 and producing PGA and CO2.
D. all photosystems as well as photorespiration come to a halt.
E. All choices but the halting of photosystems are correct.

E. All choices but the halting of photosystems are correct.

The major enzyme that 'fixes' carbon dioxide is called
A. ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco).
B. glyceraldehyde-3-phospate (G3P).
C. PEP carboxylase (PEPcase).
D. lactate dehydrogenase

A. ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco).

The first event in the Calvin cycle is the attachment of carbon dioxide to the five-carbon RuBP molecule, which: forms a six-carbon molecule that immediately breaks down into two three-carbon PGA molecules.
True False

True

The first event in the Calvin cycle is the attachment of carbon dioxide to the five-carbon RuBP molecule, which: is a reaction assisted by large quantities of RuBP carboxylase enzyme.
True False

True

The first event in the Calvin cycle is the attachment of carbon dioxide to the five-carbon RuBP molecule, which: decreases cell carbon dioxide levels, which increases the diffusion gradient.
True False

True

The first event in the Calvin cycle is the attachment of carbon dioxide to the five-carbon RuBP molecule, which: immediately becomes a six-carbon sugar that is the base for starch, sucrose, cellulose, etc.
True False

False

The function of sunlight in photosynthesis is to:
A. reduce NADPH to NADP
B. fix O2 in the Calvin cycle
C. excite electrons in chlorophyll
D. combine carbon dioxide and water to form ATP and NADPH

C. excite electrons in chlorophyll

Which would be a CAM plant?
A. cactus
B. corn
C. rice
D. wheat
E. oak tree

A. cactus

A product of photosynthesis, _________, is the chief source of energy for most organisms.
A. Oxygen
B. Sucrose
C. Glucose
D. All of the above

C. Glucose

Oxygen production in photosynthesis involves all of the following EXCEPT
A. photosystem one.
B. photosystem two.
C. splitting of water.
D. light reactions

A. photosystem one.

G3P (glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate) is used by plants for all of the following EXCEPT the formation of
A. fatty acids.
B. amino acids.
C. oxygen.
D. sucrose.

C. oxygen.

C-4 plants
A. store carbon dioxide temporarily as oxaloacetate.
B. are found in hot dry climates.
C. have a net photosynthetic rate two to three times that of C-3 plants.
D. All of the choices are correct.

D. All of the choices are correct.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/60296733@N06/5514060138/
Characterize the reactions involved in these reactions of the Calvin Cycle.
A. These are reactions involved in the regeneration of RuBP. The reactions include an exergonic reaction (ATP à ADP) and the reduction of the coenzyme NADPH.
B. These reaction are involved in the reduction of CO2. Energy is required in the form of ATP, which is hydrolyzed to ADP. The substrate BPG is reduced, while the coenzyme NADPH is oxidized.
C. These reaction are involved in the fixation of CO2. Energy is required in the form of ADP, which is hydrolyzed to ATP. The substrate BPG is oxidized, while the coenzyme NADPH is reduced.
D. These reactions are part of Light Reactions in noncyclic pathway. ATP and NADPH are used during these reactions.

B. These reaction are involved in the reduction of CO2. Energy is required in the form of ATP, which is hydrolyzed to ADP. The substrate BPG is reduced, while the coenzyme NADPH is oxidized.

While C-4 plants have carbon dioxide fixation and carbon dioxide uptake separated by location within the plant, CAM plants
A. have these processes separated by time.
B. fix much greater amounts of carbon dioxide than C-4 plants.
C. are found in tropical regions where nutrients are abundant.
D. All of the choices are correct.

A. have these processes separated by time.

The action spectrum of photosynthesis shows a high light absorption for violet/blue and orange/red and a low absorption for green/yellow. If we were to set up an experiment where narrow bands of unicolored light were shown on an aquatic plant such as Elodea, and we counted the number of bubbles of oxygen produced as an indicator of photosynthetic rate, how would the graph appear?
A. just like the action spectrum with peaks at violet/blue and orange/red and a trough at yellow/green
B. exactly inverted from the action spectrum with a peak for yellow/green
C. perfectly flat because many wavelengths are used by chlorophyll
D. a descending line because ultra-violet has more energy than infra-red
E. There is no way to guess without actually running the experiment.

A. just like the action spectrum with peaks at violet/blue and orange/red and a trough at yellow/green

When an electron has been excited to a higher energy state, it can then drop back to the original level, re-emitting the light as fluorescence. When chlorophyll is extracted in solution, and a bright red or blue light is shown on it, the chlorophyll fluoresces brightly. However, when the chlorophyll is packaged inside chloroplasts and the red or blue light is turned on, there is no fluorescence. This most likely indicates that
A. the red and blue light waves are reflected by the chlorophyll membrane.
B. chlorophyll in solution is a different molecule than chlorophyll in a chloroplast.
C. excited electrons are transferred to electron acceptors in the chloroplast.
D. fluorescence does not work in living cells.
E. green light must be used to make living cells fluoresce.

C. excited electrons are transferred to electron acceptors in the chloroplast.

If the Calvin cycle uses three molecules of CO2 to produce six molecules of G3P (glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate), but only one G3P molecule is used to form a carbohydrate molecule, what happens to the other carbons that were taken in?
A. Any unused CO2 is released into the environment.
B. The other five G3P molecules are used to regenerate more RuBP.
C. Any unused G3P molecule is converted and stored as starch.
D. The remaining five G3P molecules are used to reduce CO2.

B. The other five G3P molecules are used to regenerate more RuBP.

An early experiment by Van Helmont (1600s) describes how he "grew a tree in a large pot and found that after five years, the amount of soil in the pot had not changed. He concluded that the increase in weight was due to the addition of water." At that time, the compounds in the air had not yet been identified. Today, you know that he only discovered half the story. Which additional experiment would provide evidence for the rest of the story?
A. A very careful audit of the water taken in and lost by the tree would have revealed only half the added weight gained by the tree.
B. Carbon is discovered as a major element in trees and is lacking in water molecules.
C. Radioactive carbon in CO2 in the air is soon located as part of tree structures.
D. The critical experiment involves the conversion of nutrients in the soil.
E. All but the nutrient conversion is correct.

E. All but the nutrient conversion is correct.

Fossil fuels are full of energy stored from photosynthesis millions of years ago.
True False

True

The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur in the stroma of the chloroplast.
True False

False

Chemiosmotic ATP synthesis occurs in the cytosol of the cell.
True False

False

Photorespiration is the process by which light is used to release the stored energy in carbohydrate molecules to perform all work in plant cells.
True False

False

Plants that conduct C-4 metabolism are desert plants.
True False

True

Phosphoenylpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) fixes carbon dioxide(C1) to PEP(C3) to form oxaloacetate(C4) within mesophyll cells of the C-4 plants.
True False

True

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