5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- T cytotoxic Cells
- Mechanism 2:
Autoantibody opsonization of a host target cell
(in concert with complement)
with resultant inflammatory cell activation and phagocytosis
- T cytotoxic cells directly
- Blood transfusion reactions occur when
- T helper cells
- a Autoantibodies coat the host cell and opsonize it (along with complement), making it more susceptible to phagocytosis by inflammatory cells like the macrophage
- b bind to MHC I molecules
recognize antigen with CD3 receptor and bind with CD 8 molecule
- c a person (the recipient) receives blood from a donor who has an ABO blood type that is incompatible with the donor's blood type.
The presence of the foreign antigens on the donor's red blood cells (RBCs) causes the recipient's immune system to muster a response against the donor's RBCs. This results in hemolysis of the RBCs being transfused.
- d kill target cells that are presenting antigen through release of toxic substances such as perforins and phospholipases
- e bind to MHC II receptors
recognize antigen with CD3 receptor and bind with CD4 molecule
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- The presence of HIV in the blood can be detected very early in the course of infection by measuring viral proteins using this technique
Unfortunately, this test is expensive and complicated and is not yet appropriate for general screening of the population.
Instead, it is used to monitor the progression of infection and the response to treatment in those already known to be infected with HIV.
- genetically determined by a series of genes on chromosome 6
are on all cells except the RBCs.
They function to identify self from nonself and to present endogenous antigen to the immune system.
The genes that determine an individual's MHC antigens are inherited, but the expression of these genes is variable so that no person's MHC antigens are identical to either parent or any sibling (with the exception of identical twins).
- sensitization of the individual to that allergen.
- cytotoxic (Tc)
and lymphokine-producing (Td) lymphocytes
mediate this reaction.
- is one of the most common forms of hypersensitivity found throughout the world and affects nearly 20% of Americans.
this type of hypersensitivity disorder range in severity from mild allergic rhinitis (hay fever) to rapidly fatal anaphylaxis.
is mediated by production of IgE antibody in response to exposure to specific exogenous antigens (called allergens)
5 True/False Questions
IV hypersensitivity, lymphocytes react to a self-antigen on a host target cell, either because → polymorphonucleocytes and macrophages that provide the cellular inflammatory response.
Tissues commonly affected by histamine via its H1 receptor during allergic symptoms include the nasal mucosa, conjunctiva, skin, bronchi, and the gastrointestinal tract.
True autoimmunity → immunologic tolerance is lost and the body begins to recognize self-antigens as foreign. In some autoimmune disorders, the environmental antigen that altered the self-antigens is easily identified, such as drugs or plant resins.
For most autoimmune conditions, however, the cause is idiopathic and no known causative agent has been identified. Many of these disorders run in families, which suggests that there is a genetic vulnerability that can be inherited. In a few disorders, specific alterations in the major histocompatibility (HLA) antigens have been identified
There are three major types of hypersensitivity reactions: → II through IV.
Common food allergens are contained in → milk, peanuts, tree nuts, eggs, wheat, and fish. Food preservatives (for example MSG, monosodium glutamate) may also cause allergy.
Both T cytotoxic and T delayed hypersensitivity cells are involved in → type IV hypersensitivity