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Which muscle type has gap junctions?

Cardiac

Which muscle type is spindle shaped?

Smooth

Which of the following events does not occur during muscle contraction?

The distance between Z-lines increase

An individual sarcomere consists of

overlapping actin and myosin

Starting with the arrival of an action potential at the nueromuscular junction put the events in order

AP travels down T tubeles, depolarization spreads through the t tubule,calcium released from sarcoplasmic reticulum and myosin binds

When animals die muscles stiffen in rigor mortis because

actin and myosin cannot separate without ATP

How does tropomyosin control muscle contraction

changes in position expose actin-myosin binding sites

Whether a muscle contraction is strong or weak depends on

number of motor nuerons and how fast they are firing

The legs of a cross country skier and long distance runners are more likely to have

more slow twitch fibers

Aerobic excercise such as jogging increases

all of the above

bone tissues consist of __cells in a matrix___

osteocytes; collagen and calcium phosphate

Haversian systems consist of

cylindrical tubules that surround a canal of blood vessels

Myofibrils are organized into

sarcomeres

Gas exchange in animals always involves

diffusion of internal body fluids and the outside medium

Stages of muiscle contraction in correct order

A,C,B,F,E,D

Breathing also eliminates ______, one of the waste products of the cell metabolism

CO2

Oxygen can be exchanged in air more easily than in water because

1)oxygen content in air is higher than water
2)oxygen diffuses more slowly in water than in air
3)more energy to move water than air
4)no need to maintain moisture of the respiratory surface with gas exchange

All of the Above

Aquatic animals that lack an internal system for transporting O2

all of the above

The rate of mammals is maximized by

the enormous surface area for gas exchange

Which of the following structures is the site of gas exchange in the lungs

Alveoli

During inhalation what happens to the diaphragm

moves down

Each molecule of hemoglobin carries how many molecules of oxygen

4

In acidic tissues hemoglobin releases____it does in less acidic environment

more O2 than

Which of the following statements about myoglobin is false

Myoglobin has lesser for O2 than hemoglobin does

Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme in red blood cells that catalyzes a reaction between CO2 and

water

Most of the Co2 in blood in transported as ____ and is located mainly in the ______

HCO3 ; plasma

The breathing is generated in the ____ and is influenced by the variation levels of ______ in the blood.

medulla ; CO2 and O2

The blood vessels with the greatest total cross-sectional area are the

capillaries

In an open circulatory system

there is no distinction between blood and tissue fluid

In the human heart blood is pumped from the left ventricle into the

systematic circuit

In humans which empties into the right atrium

Inferior and Superior vena cava

Which vessels transports oxygenated blood from the lung into the heart

Pulmonary vein

Systole and Diastole describe the _____and ______, respectively, of the ________in mammals.

contraction; relaxation ; ventricles

A blood pressure represented as 140/100 means that

during ventricular contraction the pressure is at 140 and during ventricular relaxation the pressure is at 100

The specific location of the heart pacemaker is the

sinoatrial node

The timing of the spread of the action potential from atrium to ventricle is controlled by the

atrioventricular node

The most abundant cells in the blood are

erythrocytes

The hormone erythropoietin is released by the kidney to stimulate what

the production of red blood cells

When the whole blood is centrifuged it is separated into a liquid component called ______ and a bottom layer of _____

plasma ; cells

The function of leukocytes is to

destroy foreign cells or to produce antibodies

A platelet is activated to initiate clotting

when collagen fibers are encountered

As blood enters the capillaries from the arterioles, blood pressure ______ & osmotic potential ______.

decreases ; increases

Organisms that derive both their energy and molecular nutrients from other organisms are called

heterotrophs

In the small intestine, the blood and lymph vessels that carry away absorbed nutrients lie in which layer

submucosa

the sweetness that you taste if you keep chewing a piece of bread is due to the enzyme

amylase

Pepsinogen is converted into pepsin by

low pH

Which of the following represents the correct direction of formation of the heartbeat

1,6,3,2,4,5

The gut of a vertebrate is often described as an elongated tube consisting of four layers of different cell types. Which is the correct order of layers from innermost to outermost?

Mucosa, submucosa, circular muscle, longitudinal muscle

Which structure is not encountered by a food bolus as it is being swallowed?

Larynx

Which of the following statements about digestion in the small intestine is false?

Bile molecules have one end that is lipophobic and one end that is hydrophilic

A lipase is an enzyme that breaks down

fat molecules

The major function of the large intestine or colon is

to reabsorb water

If a person is unable to produce normal levels of cholecystokinin, which of the following will occur after a person eats a fatty meal?

1)motility decreased
2)stomach will secrete excess acids
3)acid chyme will not be nuetralized in the intestine
4)fat will be emulsified

All of the Above

Insulin is released by the pancreas when blood

glucose rises

The effect of antidiuretic hormone is to

increase urine concentration

Marine invertebrates in which the salinity of body fluids changes with the osmotic potential of their environments are known as

osmoconformers

Which of the following is not a factor in the movement of water into tissues

Active transport

Which of the following molecules is toxic to cells

Ammonia

Terrestrial organisms must conserve water. The least amount of water is lost with the secretion of which nitrogenous waste product

Uric Acid

The functional unit of the kidney is the

nephron

During filtration which of the follwing enters Bowmans capsule from the bloodstream

Plasma proteins

Which structure is found in the inner medulla of the kidney

Loop of Henle

Which of the following is the proper sequence of the passage of urine from the kidney

Renal pyramid, ureter, bladder, urethra

Valuable molecules like glucose, amino acids, and vitamins are reabsorbed into the blood at which location in the nephron

Proximal convoluted tubule

Which of the following is a protective mechanism which helps prevent digestion of stomach lining

mucus secretion

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